Reconstitution of hair follicle development in vivo: determination of follicle formation, hair growth, and hair quality by dermal cells.
ABSTRACT Combinations of cultured and uncultured epidermal and dermal cell preparations from newborn and perinatal mice were grafted onto the backs of athymic nude mouse hosts to elucidate the cellular requirements for skin appendage formation. All epidermal populations studied, including a total epidermal keratinocyte preparation from trypsin-split skin, developing hair follicle buds isolated from epidermis, and preformed hair follicles isolated from dermis, make haired skin when grafted with fresh dermal cells. Only pre-formed hair follicles produce haired skin on grafts without an additional dermal component. Hair follicle buds grafted alone or with cultured dermal cells will reconstitute skin but without appendage formation. Thus, cells or factors present in fresh, but not cultured, dermal cells are essential for supporting hair growth from budding follicles, whereas more developed (pre-formed) follicles appear to contain all the necessary components for hair formation. Dissociation of isolated hair follicles by trypsin/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid prior to grafting is permissive for hair growth, suggesting that follicle cells can be re-induced or reassociate in vivo. Dermal papilla cells, microdissected from rat vibrissal follicles and cultured for up to 14 passages, stimulate hair growth from follicle buds and influence the quality of hair growth from pre-formed hair follicles. Thus, dermal papilla cells maintain inductive capacity in culture and contribute to the reconstituted skin. This reconstitution model should be useful for identifying cell populations within the hair follicle compartment necessary for hair growth and for examining the effects of specific gene products on hair follicle growth and development in vivo.
Article: Shh maintains dermal papilla identity and hair morphogenesis via a Noggin-Shh regulatory loop.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During hair follicle morphogenesis, dermal papillae (DPs) function as mesenchymal signaling centers that cross-talk with overlying epithelium to regulate morphogenesis. While the DP regulates hair follicle formation, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of DP formation. The morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is known for regulating hair follicle epithelial growth, with excessive signaling resulting in basal cell carcinomas. Here, we investigate how dermal-specific Shh signaling contributes to DP formation and hair growth. Using a Cre-lox genetic model and RNAi in hair follicle reconstitution assays, we demonstrate that dermal Smoothened (Smo) loss of function results in the loss of the DP precursor, the dermal condensate, and a stage 2 hair follicle arrest phenotype reminiscent of Shh(-/-) skin. Surprisingly, dermal Smo does not regulate cell survival or epithelial proliferation. Rather, molecular screening and immunostaining studies reveal that dermal Shh signaling controls the expression of a subset of DP-specific signature genes. Using a hairpin/cDNA lentiviral system, we show that overexpression of the Shh-dependent gene Noggin, but not Sox2 or Sox18, can partially rescue the dermal Smo knockdown hair follicle phenotype by increasing the expression of epithelial Shh. Our findings suggest that dermal Shh signaling regulates specific DP signatures to maintain DP maturation while maintaining a reciprocal Shh-Noggin signaling loop to drive hair follicle morphogenesis.Genes & development 06/2012; 26(11):1235-46. · 12.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hair follicle morphogenesis, a complex process requiring interaction between epithelia-derived keratinocytes and the underlying mesenchyme, is an attractive model system to study organ development and tissue-specific signaling. Although hair follicle development is genetically tractable, fast and reproducible analysis of factors essential for this process remains a challenge. Here we describe a procedure to generate targeted overexpression or shRNA-mediated knockdown of factors using lentivirus in a tissue-specific manner. Using a modified version of a hair regeneration model 5, 6, 11, we can achieve robust gain- or loss-of-function analysis in primary mouse keratinocytes or dermal cells to facilitate study of epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathways that lead to hair follicle morphogenesis. We describe how to isolate fresh primary mouse keratinocytes and dermal cells, which contain dermal papilla cells and their precursors, deliver lentivirus containing either shRNA or cDNA to one of the cell populatJournal of Visualized Experiments 02/2013;
Article: Fully functional hair follicle regeneration through the rearrangement of stem cells and their niches.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Organ replacement regenerative therapy is purported to enable the replacement of organs damaged by disease, injury or aging in the foreseeable future. Here we demonstrate fully functional hair organ regeneration via the intracutaneous transplantation of a bioengineered pelage and vibrissa follicle germ. The pelage and vibrissae are reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived cells and adult vibrissa stem cell region-derived cells, respectively. The bioengineered hair follicle develops the correct structures and forms proper connections with surrounding host tissues such as the epidermis, arrector pili muscle and nerve fibres. The bioengineered follicles also show restored hair cycles and piloerection through the rearrangement of follicular stem cells and their niches. This study thus reveals the potential applications of adult tissue-derived follicular stem cells as a bioengineered organ replacement therapy.Nature Communications 01/2012; 3:784. · 7.40 Impact Factor