Role of sulfhydryl groups in the function of glucosidase I from mammary gland.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park 20742.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 04/1993; 268(9):6445-52.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glucosidase I initiates the processing of asparagine-linked glycoproteins by excising the distal alpha 1,2-linked glucosyl residue from the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide, soon after its en bloc transfer from the lipid-linked donor to the nascent polypeptide. 1-Deoxynojirimycin, an analog of D-glucose, is a potent competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. Sulfhydryl-seeking reagents also strongly inhibit the enzyme, implying the involvement of an -SH group in its activity. To test this hypothesis, glucosidase I was purified from the rat mammary gland and its active site was loaded with 1-deoxynojirimycin, to protect such a group(s), while -SH groups on the remaining surface of the enzyme were blocked with N-ethylmaleimide or para-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. Deoxynojirimycin was removed by dialysis to expose the active site -SH group(s). This group(s) was then tagged with 3-(N-maleimidopropionyl)biocytin (MPB) and detected with 125I-streptavidin on Western blots. A series of experiments is presented to show that indeed a critical -SH group(s) is located within the catalytic site of the enzyme. Additionally, the enzyme also possesses one or more sulfhydryls and disulfide bonds in its primary structure. The experimental approach outlined here should apply to identify reactive sulfhydryl groups in other catalytically active proteins.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of HNK-1 carbohydrate is mainly regulated by two glucuronyltransferases (GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S) and a sulfotransferase (HNK-1 ST). To determine how the two glucuronyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 carbohydrate, we prepared soluble forms of GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S fused with the IgG-binding domain of protein A and then compared the enzymatic properties of the two enzymes. Both GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S transferred glucuronic acid (GlcA) not only to a glycoprotein acceptor, asialoorosomucoid (ASOR), but also to a glycolipid acceptor, paragloboside. The activity of GlcAT-P toward ASOR was enhanced fivefold in the presence of sphingomyelin, but there were no effects on that of GlcAT-S. The activities of the two enzymes toward paragloboside were only detected in the presence of phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol. Kinetic analysis revealed that the K(m) value of GlcAT-P for ASOR was 10 times lower than that for paragloboside. Furthermore, acceptor specificity analysis involving various oligosaccarides revealed that GlcAT-P specifically recognized N-acetyllactosamine (Galbeta1-4GlcNAc) at the nonreducing terminals of acceptor substrates. In contrast, GlcAT-S recognized not only the terminal Galbeta1-4GlcNAc structure but also the Galbeta1-3GlcNAc structure and showed the highest activity toward triantennary N-linked oligosaccharides. GlcAT-P transferred GlcA to NCAM about twice as much as to ASOR, whereas GlcAT-S did not show any activity toward NCAM. These lines of evidence indicate that these two enzymes have significantly different acceptor specificities, suggesting that they may synthesize functionally and structurally different HNK-1 carbohydrates in the nervous system.
    Glycobiology 03/2005; 15(2):203-10. DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwi001 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucosidase I initiates the processing of asparagine (N-) linked glycoproteins by removing the distal alpha1,2-linked glucosyl residue of the tetradecasaccharide Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2). The gene encoding this enzyme was isolated and its structural organization and promoter activity determined. The major transcript for glucosidase I on northern blot appeared to be 3.1 kb; Southern blotting and DNA sequencing indicated the size of the gene to be 6.8 kb, comprising four exons separated by three introns. The first exon encodes the cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain; the fourth encodes the putative catalytic domain of the enzyme. Exon-intron junctions are flanked by consensus splice donor and acceptor sequences. Transcription initiation sites were mapped by primer extension, ribonuclease protection assay and RT-PCR analysis. Primer extension results showed multiple initiation sites at -150, -156, and -272 bp relative to the translation initiation codon ATG. Sequence analysis of 5' flanking region showed no canonical TATA box, a high GC content, Sp1 and ETF binding sites (typical of a housekeeping gene promoter). Also noteworthy, the promoter region contains several generic STAT factor binding sites, one nearly perfect, and two half GR binding elements. Other cis- acting elements recognized by transcription factors such as AP-2, NF-kappaB, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor (PR) were also present in the putative promoter region. To determine the promoter activity, a construct encompassing the region between -2114 to -5 bp of the putative promoter was ligated to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid and transiently transfected into COS 7 cells. CAT assay results clearly show transcriptional activity of the promoter.
    Glycobiology 09/1999; 9(8):797-806. DOI:10.1093/glycob/9.8.797 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Candidiasis is a significant cause of invasive human mycosis with associated mortality rates that are equivalent to, or worse than, those cited for most cases of bacterial septicemia. As a result, considerable efforts are being made to understand how the fungus invades host cells and to identify new targets for fungal chemotherapy. This has led to an increasing interest in Candida glycobiology, with an emphasis on the identification of enzymes essential for glycoprotein and adhesion metabolism, and the role of N- and O-linked glycans in host recognition and virulence. Here, we refer to studies dealing with the identification and characterization of enzymes such as dolichol phosphate mannose synthase, dolichol phosphate glucose synthase and processing glycosidases and synthesis, structure and recognition of mannans and discuss recent findings in the context of Candida albicans pathogenesis.
    Future Microbiology 11/2009; 4(9):1167-83. DOI:10.2217/fmb.09.88 · 4.02 Impact Factor


Available from