Role of sulfhydryl groups in the function of glucosidase I from mammary gland.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park 20742.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 04/1993; 268(9):6445-52.
Source: PubMed


Glucosidase I initiates the processing of asparagine-linked glycoproteins by excising the distal alpha 1,2-linked glucosyl residue from the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide, soon after its en bloc transfer from the lipid-linked donor to the nascent polypeptide. 1-Deoxynojirimycin, an analog of D-glucose, is a potent competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. Sulfhydryl-seeking reagents also strongly inhibit the enzyme, implying the involvement of an -SH group in its activity. To test this hypothesis, glucosidase I was purified from the rat mammary gland and its active site was loaded with 1-deoxynojirimycin, to protect such a group(s), while -SH groups on the remaining surface of the enzyme were blocked with N-ethylmaleimide or para-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. Deoxynojirimycin was removed by dialysis to expose the active site -SH group(s). This group(s) was then tagged with 3-(N-maleimidopropionyl)biocytin (MPB) and detected with 125I-streptavidin on Western blots. A series of experiments is presented to show that indeed a critical -SH group(s) is located within the catalytic site of the enzyme. Additionally, the enzyme also possesses one or more sulfhydryls and disulfide bonds in its primary structure. The experimental approach outlined here should apply to identify reactive sulfhydryl groups in other catalytically active proteins.

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    • "α-Glucosidase I catalysis, like other glycosidases, is controlled by carboxylic acid residues (Koshland, 1953), as previously demonstrated by selective chemical modification with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (Dhanawansa et al., 2002). Other residues, including Arg, Cys, and Trp, were reported to be likely participants in the binding site of mammalian α-glucosidase I based on chemical modification (Pukazhenthi et al., 1993; Romaniouk and Vijay, 1997). Also, mutated α-glucosidase I isolated from a patient with congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIb showed that together, Arg 486 Thr and Phe 652 Leu substitutions largely inactivated the enzyme (De Praeter et al., 2000; Volker et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Alpha-glucosidase I initiates the trimming of newly assembled N-linked glycoproteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Site-specific chemical modification of the soluble alpha-glucosidase I from yeast using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) and tetranitromethane (TNM) revealed that histidine and tyrosine are involved in the catalytic activity of the enzyme, as these residues could be protected from modification using the inhibitor deoxynojirimycin. Deoxynojirimycin could not prevent inactivation of enzyme treated with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) used to modify tryptophan residues. Therefore, the binding mechanism of yeast enzyme contains different amino acid residues compared to its mammalian counterpart. Catalytically active polypeptides were isolated from endogenous proteolysis and controlled trypsin hydrolysis of the enzyme. A 37-kDa nonglycosylated polypeptide was isolated as the smallest active fragment from both digests, using affinity chromatography with inhibitor-based resins (N-methyl-N-59-carboxypentyl- and N-59-carboxypentyl-deoxynojirimycin). N-terminal sequencing confirmed that the catalytic domain of the enzyme is located at the C-terminus. The hydrolysis sites were between Arg(521) and Thr(522) for endogenous proteolysis and residues Lys(524) and Phe(525) for the trypsin-generated peptide. This 37-kDa polypeptide is 1.9 times more active than the 98-kDa protein when assayed with the synthetic trisaccharide, alpha-D-Glc1,2alpha-D-Glc1,3alpha-D-Glc-O(CH2)(8)COOCH(3), and is not glycosylated. Identification of this relatively small fragment with catalytic activity will allow mechanistic studies to focus on this critical region and raises interesting questions about the relationship between the catalytic region and the remaining polypeptide.
    Glycobiology 01/2006; 15(12):1341-8. DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwj009 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    • "The structural organization of glucosidase I gene shows a relationship with the functional domains of the enzyme. The first exon codes for the cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain of the enzyme, the second and third exons encode the amino acid residues 116 through 192 and 193 through 257, respectively, whereas the fourth exon encodes the putative catalytic domain containing both the active and the glycosylation sites (Shailubhai et al., 1991; Pukazhenthi et al., 1993; Romaniouk and Vijay, 1997). At present, no clear function can be assigned to second and third exons. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucosidase I initiates the processing of asparagine (N-) linked glycoproteins by removing the distal alpha1,2-linked glucosyl residue of the tetradecasaccharide Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2). The gene encoding this enzyme was isolated and its structural organization and promoter activity determined. The major transcript for glucosidase I on northern blot appeared to be 3.1 kb; Southern blotting and DNA sequencing indicated the size of the gene to be 6.8 kb, comprising four exons separated by three introns. The first exon encodes the cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain; the fourth encodes the putative catalytic domain of the enzyme. Exon-intron junctions are flanked by consensus splice donor and acceptor sequences. Transcription initiation sites were mapped by primer extension, ribonuclease protection assay and RT-PCR analysis. Primer extension results showed multiple initiation sites at -150, -156, and -272 bp relative to the translation initiation codon ATG. Sequence analysis of 5' flanking region showed no canonical TATA box, a high GC content, Sp1 and ETF binding sites (typical of a housekeeping gene promoter). Also noteworthy, the promoter region contains several generic STAT factor binding sites, one nearly perfect, and two half GR binding elements. Other cis- acting elements recognized by transcription factors such as AP-2, NF-kappaB, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor (PR) were also present in the putative promoter region. To determine the promoter activity, a construct encompassing the region between -2114 to -5 bp of the putative promoter was ligated to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid and transiently transfected into COS 7 cells. CAT assay results clearly show transcriptional activity of the promoter.
    Glycobiology 09/1999; 9(8):797-806. DOI:10.1093/glycob/9.8.797 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of HNK-1 carbohydrate is mainly regulated by two glucuronyltransferases (GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S) and a sulfotransferase (HNK-1 ST). To determine how the two glucuronyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 carbohydrate, we prepared soluble forms of GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S fused with the IgG-binding domain of protein A and then compared the enzymatic properties of the two enzymes. Both GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S transferred glucuronic acid (GlcA) not only to a glycoprotein acceptor, asialoorosomucoid (ASOR), but also to a glycolipid acceptor, paragloboside. The activity of GlcAT-P toward ASOR was enhanced fivefold in the presence of sphingomyelin, but there were no effects on that of GlcAT-S. The activities of the two enzymes toward paragloboside were only detected in the presence of phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol. Kinetic analysis revealed that the K(m) value of GlcAT-P for ASOR was 10 times lower than that for paragloboside. Furthermore, acceptor specificity analysis involving various oligosaccarides revealed that GlcAT-P specifically recognized N-acetyllactosamine (Galbeta1-4GlcNAc) at the nonreducing terminals of acceptor substrates. In contrast, GlcAT-S recognized not only the terminal Galbeta1-4GlcNAc structure but also the Galbeta1-3GlcNAc structure and showed the highest activity toward triantennary N-linked oligosaccharides. GlcAT-P transferred GlcA to NCAM about twice as much as to ASOR, whereas GlcAT-S did not show any activity toward NCAM. These lines of evidence indicate that these two enzymes have significantly different acceptor specificities, suggesting that they may synthesize functionally and structurally different HNK-1 carbohydrates in the nervous system.
    Glycobiology 03/2005; 15(2):203-10. DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwi001 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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