Role of sulfhydryl groups in the function of glucosidase I from mammary gland.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park 20742.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.65). 04/1993; 268(9):6445-52.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glucosidase I initiates the processing of asparagine-linked glycoproteins by excising the distal alpha 1,2-linked glucosyl residue from the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide, soon after its en bloc transfer from the lipid-linked donor to the nascent polypeptide. 1-Deoxynojirimycin, an analog of D-glucose, is a potent competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. Sulfhydryl-seeking reagents also strongly inhibit the enzyme, implying the involvement of an -SH group in its activity. To test this hypothesis, glucosidase I was purified from the rat mammary gland and its active site was loaded with 1-deoxynojirimycin, to protect such a group(s), while -SH groups on the remaining surface of the enzyme were blocked with N-ethylmaleimide or para-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. Deoxynojirimycin was removed by dialysis to expose the active site -SH group(s). This group(s) was then tagged with 3-(N-maleimidopropionyl)biocytin (MPB) and detected with 125I-streptavidin on Western blots. A series of experiments is presented to show that indeed a critical -SH group(s) is located within the catalytic site of the enzyme. Additionally, the enzyme also possesses one or more sulfhydryls and disulfide bonds in its primary structure. The experimental approach outlined here should apply to identify reactive sulfhydryl groups in other catalytically active proteins.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alpha-glucosidase I initiates the trimming of newly assembled N-linked glycoproteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Site-specific chemical modification of the soluble alpha-glucosidase I from yeast using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) and tetranitromethane (TNM) revealed that histidine and tyrosine are involved in the catalytic activity of the enzyme, as these residues could be protected from modification using the inhibitor deoxynojirimycin. Deoxynojirimycin could not prevent inactivation of enzyme treated with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) used to modify tryptophan residues. Therefore, the binding mechanism of yeast enzyme contains different amino acid residues compared to its mammalian counterpart. Catalytically active polypeptides were isolated from endogenous proteolysis and controlled trypsin hydrolysis of the enzyme. A 37-kDa nonglycosylated polypeptide was isolated as the smallest active fragment from both digests, using affinity chromatography with inhibitor-based resins (N-methyl-N-59-carboxypentyl- and N-59-carboxypentyl-deoxynojirimycin). N-terminal sequencing confirmed that the catalytic domain of the enzyme is located at the C-terminus. The hydrolysis sites were between Arg(521) and Thr(522) for endogenous proteolysis and residues Lys(524) and Phe(525) for the trypsin-generated peptide. This 37-kDa polypeptide is 1.9 times more active than the 98-kDa protein when assayed with the synthetic trisaccharide, alpha-D-Glc1,2alpha-D-Glc1,3alpha-D-Glc-O(CH2)(8)COOCH(3), and is not glycosylated. Identification of this relatively small fragment with catalytic activity will allow mechanistic studies to focus on this critical region and raises interesting questions about the relationship between the catalytic region and the remaining polypeptide.
    Glycobiology 01/2006; 15(12):1341-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of HNK-1 carbohydrate is mainly regulated by two glucuronyltransferases (GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S) and a sulfotransferase (HNK-1 ST). To determine how the two glucuronyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 carbohydrate, we prepared soluble forms of GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S fused with the IgG-binding domain of protein A and then compared the enzymatic properties of the two enzymes. Both GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S transferred glucuronic acid (GlcA) not only to a glycoprotein acceptor, asialoorosomucoid (ASOR), but also to a glycolipid acceptor, paragloboside. The activity of GlcAT-P toward ASOR was enhanced fivefold in the presence of sphingomyelin, but there were no effects on that of GlcAT-S. The activities of the two enzymes toward paragloboside were only detected in the presence of phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol. Kinetic analysis revealed that the K(m) value of GlcAT-P for ASOR was 10 times lower than that for paragloboside. Furthermore, acceptor specificity analysis involving various oligosaccarides revealed that GlcAT-P specifically recognized N-acetyllactosamine (Galbeta1-4GlcNAc) at the nonreducing terminals of acceptor substrates. In contrast, GlcAT-S recognized not only the terminal Galbeta1-4GlcNAc structure but also the Galbeta1-3GlcNAc structure and showed the highest activity toward triantennary N-linked oligosaccharides. GlcAT-P transferred GlcA to NCAM about twice as much as to ASOR, whereas GlcAT-S did not show any activity toward NCAM. These lines of evidence indicate that these two enzymes have significantly different acceptor specificities, suggesting that they may synthesize functionally and structurally different HNK-1 carbohydrates in the nervous system.
    Glycobiology 03/2005; 15(2):203-10. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Candidiasis is a significant cause of invasive human mycosis with associated mortality rates that are equivalent to, or worse than, those cited for most cases of bacterial septicemia. As a result, considerable efforts are being made to understand how the fungus invades host cells and to identify new targets for fungal chemotherapy. This has led to an increasing interest in Candida glycobiology, with an emphasis on the identification of enzymes essential for glycoprotein and adhesion metabolism, and the role of N- and O-linked glycans in host recognition and virulence. Here, we refer to studies dealing with the identification and characterization of enzymes such as dolichol phosphate mannose synthase, dolichol phosphate glucose synthase and processing glycosidases and synthesis, structure and recognition of mannans and discuss recent findings in the context of Candida albicans pathogenesis.
    Future Microbiology 11/2009; 4(9):1167-83. · 4.02 Impact Factor


Available from

Similar Publications