In vitro growth of Babesia bovis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) erythrocytes.
ABSTRACT Babesia bovis cultured in bovine erythrocytes was passaged into white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) erythrocytes and medium containing either white-tailed deer serum or bovine serum. Deer erythrocytes supported the growth of the parasite only in the presence of bovine serum. Cryopreserved cultures were recovered successfully in white-tailed deer erythrocytes. By light and electron microscopy, B. bovis structure appeared similar in host cells of either species.
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ABSTRACT: The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.Frontiers in Physiology 06/2012; 3:195. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00195
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ABSTRACT: Species of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) ticks are the vectors of babesiosis (cattle fever tick), which are distributed worldwide. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are important secondary hosts for the cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (B.) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus. White-tailed deer are capable of sustaining Boophilus spp. tick populations in the presence or absence of cattle. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and the prevalence of antibodies to them and identify possible risk factors for bovine babesiosis in white-tailed deer in 3 northeastern states of México. Whole blood and serum samples (n = 457) were collected from white-tailed deer in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during the spring of 2004. Samples were tested for B. bovis and B. bigemina by nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) (the primers for B. bovis identified the gene Rap-1 and B. bigemina were specific primers) and by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A questionnaire was given to each ranch to obtain information about management practices. Logistic regression methods were used to test the association between management factors and the dependent variable of positive n-PCR or IFAT. Nineteen (4.2%) samples were positive to B. bigemina and 6 (1.7%) were positive to B. bovis by n-PCR. Serological testing showed 59.9% (n = 274) of deer sampled were positive to B. bovis and 5.4% (n = 25) were positive to B. bigemina antibodies. The logistic model varied with different dependent variables. With positive n-PCR and B. bigemina as the dependent variable, 3 factors were associated: habitat (presence of brush and exotic grasses; odds ratio (OR), 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-8.5), grazing system (continuous grazing OR 4.0; CI, 1.3-12.2), and tick treatment frequency (3-4 mo; OR 7.0, CI 1.4-34.3; 5-6 mo; OR, 11.0; CI, 1.9-62.7; > 6 mo; OR, 4.6; CI, 0.9-23.3). These findings suggest that white-tailed deer may act as a reservoir for the 2 bovine Babesia spp. and that white-tailed deer may be important in the epidemiology of babesiosis. However, evidence is not available to support whether white-tailed deer are, or are not, likely to be a host that could complete the transmission cycle of Babesia spp. These results suggest that additional research is needed to demonstrate the importance of white-tailed deer as a Babesia spp. infection source for ticks.Journal of Parasitology 06/2009; 95(3):536-42. DOI:10.1645/GE-1648.1 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two human hemoglobin (Hb) variants, Hb C and Hb S, are known to protect against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and have evolved repeatedly in malaria endemic areas. Both aggregate to insoluble crystals (Hb C) or polymers (Hb S) under certain physiological conditions, impair parasite growth and may facilitate retention of infected red blood cells (RBCs) in the spleen. Given the profound effects of parasites on host evolution in general, and RBC Hb concentrations close to the solubility limit throughout vertebrates, similar mechanisms may operate in non-human vertebrates. Here we show exercise-induced, profound in vivo Hb polymerization in RBCs of the Gulf toadfish. Hb aggregation was closely associated with the extent of plasma acidosis, fully reversible and without any signs of haemolysis or anemia. Our literature analysis suggests that aggregation prone Hbs may be relatively old, evolved multiple times in non-human vertebrates, show enhanced aggregation during hemoparasite infections and can be uncovered in vivo by splenectomy. We suggest that they are the result of on-going selection pressure against RBC parasites. Comparative studies of these long established systems may provide valuable insights into hemoparasite susceptibility and reservoir potential of livestock and companion animals, but also into human malaria and sickle cell disease.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 09/2013; 305(10). DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00246.2013 · 3.53 Impact Factor