Babesia bovis cultured in bovine erythrocytes was passaged into white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) erythrocytes and medium containing either white-tailed deer serum or bovine serum. Deer erythrocytes supported the growth of the parasite only in the presence of bovine serum. Cryopreserved cultures were recovered successfully in white-tailed deer erythrocytes. By light and electron microscopy, B. bovis structure appeared similar in host cells of either species.
"Attempts to infect WTD with the agents of bovine babesiosis were unsuccessful (Kuttler et al., 1972). A study investigating the possibility that WTD might serve as a reservoir of bovine babesiosis revealed that the addition of bovine serum was required for in vitro culture of B. bovis in WTD erythrocytes (Holman et al., 1993). Serologic evidence and results from PCR tests indicated that WTD in Mexico could be infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina (Cantu-Covarrubias et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.
Frontiers in Physiology 06/2012; 3:195. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00195 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although large and small piroplasms have been reported from various wild carnivore and ungulate species, relatively few have been named. In the past, mere presence of a piroplasm in a specific host frequently prompted naming of a new species. Descriptions were often inadequate or lacking altogether. Currently, demarcation of species relies heavily on molecular characterisation. Even serological evidence is deemed insufficient. Experimental transmission of Babesia spp. from domestic to wild animals is usually only successful in closely related species, or after splenectomy. There are indications that endemic stability, similar to the situation in livestock, is the general pattern in Babesia sp. infections in wildlife. All lions in Kruger National Park were found to be infected with B. leo, which did not lead to clinical disease manifestation in artificially infected lions. Under stressful conditions, infections could flare up and be fatal, as purportedly happened to the famous lioness "Elsa". Similarly black rhinos, which can harbour Babesia bicornis without ill effects, may develop clinical babesiosis during confinement after capture. Zoo-bred animals, which were not exposed to Babesia spp. at a young age, may be fully susceptible when released into a natural environment where other members of their species occur. This could have major implications for ex situ conservation programmes aimed at bolstering natural wildlife populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Babesia odocoilei continuously cultured in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) erythrocytes was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Merozoites, trophozoites, intermediate-stage forms, and dividing forms were observed. Merozoites possessed a single nucleus, inner membrane complex, rhoptries, free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and single membrane-bound vesicles. Trophozoites lacked an inner membrane complex and rhoptries. Intermediate stages were characterized by distinct segments of inner membrane complex. Dividing forms ranged from cells with an elongated nucleus to mature daughter cells joined by a ringlike structure. Babesia odocoilei was characterized by its close proximity to the erythrocyte membrane, membranous structures resembling feeding organelles, and reproduction via a method resembling budding sensu stricto.
Journal of Parasitology 07/1993; 79(3):424-34. DOI:10.2307/3283580 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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