Strain gauge plethysmography for the detection of deep venous thrombosis.
ABSTRACT Deep venous thrombosis is a widely recognized medical problem which results in significant morbidity and mortality. Venography is the current 'gold standard' diagnostic test for deep venous thrombosis; however it is costly, invasive and is unnecessarily performed in 50% of cases. This paper describes a self-contained, non-invasive system for automatic venous occlusion plethysmographic measurement and analysis. An examination of 274 symptomatic limbs was conducted using strain gauge plethysmography and a subsequent venographic examination was then performed. The plethysmographic results were then compared with venography so as to develop a means of discrimination for thrombotic and non-thrombotic limbs. Strain gauge plethysmography using the Belfast DVT Screener yielded a sensitivity of 100% and a sensitivity of 66.3% for proximal segment DVT. The efficacy of the discriminatory algorithm was then tested for the diagnosis of DVT in a further 101 symptomatic patients. A sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 81.7% were observed for strain gauge plethysmography for proximal segment thrombosis in this patient group. The Belfast DVT Screener is highly sensitive for deep venous thrombosis and may be used to reduce the need for venography, which is of benefit to both the patient and clinician.
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ABSTRACT: Plethysmography and rheography techniques have been widely studied as diagnostic tests for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This study aimed to systematically review the accuracy of these tests for diagnosing clinically suspected DVT. The following databases were searched: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Reviews of Effectiveness, the ACP Journal Club (1966 to 2004), and citation lists of retrieved articles. Studies that compared plethysmography or rheography to a reference standard of ultrasound or contrast venography were selected. Standardised data were extracted and study quality determined against validated criteria. Data were analysed by random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis included 78 studies, reporting 82 patient cohorts. Sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) were: 75% (73% to 77%) and 90% (89% to 91%) for impedance plethysmography, 83% (81% to 85%) and 81% (79% to 82%) for strain-gauge plethysmography, 85% (79% to 90%) and 91% (81% to 95%) for air plethysmography, 91% (87% to 94%) and 71% (66% to 75%) for light-reflex rheography, and 86% (83% to 89%) and 93% (91% to 95%) for phleborheography. Meta-regression was limited by poor reporting of studies. There was some evidence that diagnostic performance depended on the proportion of males in the cohort and reporting of study setting. Although plethysmography and rheography techniques add diagnostic value, they have inadequate diagnostic performance to act as a stand-alone test in DVT diagnosis. Evaluation of their role in combination with other tests, or standardised clinical assessment, is required.Emergency Medicine Journal 09/2006; 23(8):630-5. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The clinical phase of chronic heart failure (HF) includes a marked decline in exercise tolerance, in part due to impaired skeletal muscle blood flow delivery. Interestingly, the role of the venous system on exercise tolerance in patients with HF has not received much attention, despite evidence of changes in venous structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between forearm arterial and venous function, and exercise tolerance in patients with HF and age-matched controls. Vascular function and exercise tolerance was examined in 20 patients with HF (age 59 +/- 13 years) and 10 control subjects (age 51 +/- 16 years). Nondominant forearm arterial inflow, vascular resistance, venous capacitance, and venous outflow were evaluated at rest and after 5 minutes of upper arm occlusion, using strain gauge plethysmography. Exercise tolerance was measured as the maximum walking distance achieved on a 6-minute walking test. Maximum walking distance (HF: 178 +/- 65 m; controls: 562 +/- 136 m, P=.0001), and forearm vascular function after occlusion were significantly different between groups (forearm arterial inflow: HF 15.3 +/- 6; controls 22 +/- 6.7; forearm venous capacitance: HF 1.4 +/- 0.5; controls 2.0 +/- 0.4; forearm venous outflow: HF 24.5 +/- 9.4; controls: 33 +/- 10 mL x 100 mL tissue(-1) x min(-1); and forearm vascular resistance: HF 7.8 +/- 3; controls 4.6 +/- 1.4 U). Correlation analysis revealed significant associations between all forearm vascular measurements after occlusion and maximum walking distance. These data confirm previous studies indicating the importance of arterial reactivity on exercise tolerance in patients with HF. Additionally, the results suggest the importance of venous function as a contributing factor to exercise performance.Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 01/2002; 22(5):321-6.
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ABSTRACT: Photoplethysmography (PPG) is used to estimate the skin blood flow using infrared light. Researchers from different domains of science have become increasingly interested in PPG because of its advantages as non-invasive, inexpensive, and convenient diagnostic tool. Traditionally, it measures the oxygen saturation, blood pressure, cardiac output, and for assessing autonomic functions. Moreover, PPG is a promising technique for early screening of various atherosclerotic pathologies and could be helpful for regular GP-assessment but a full understanding of the diagnostic value of the different features is still lacking. Recent studies emphasise the potential information embedded in the PPG waveform signal and it deserves further attention for its possible applications beyond pulse oximetry and heart-rate calculation. Therefore, this overview discusses different types of artifact added to PPG signal, characteristic features of PPG waveform, and existing indexes to evaluate for diagnoses.Current Cardiology Reviews 02/2012; 8(1):14-25.