Assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension. A rational basis for the electrocardiogram.
ABSTRACT There is a large body of evidence that the electrocardiogram (ECG) is insensitive in the recognition of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), in comparison with the echocardiogram; however, its specificity is high. In this study we further analyzed the performance of the ECG in detecting LVH in 200 consecutive patients (124 men and 76 women, mean age 50.9 years) with mild to moderate essential hypertension, using echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass (LVM) as the standard for comparison. To test the hypothesis that, owing to the high number of true positive findings, the ECG may still be useful for clinical purposes by selecting subsets of hypertensives with higher degrees of LVH, we compared the mean values of LVM index corresponding to either positive (true positive) or negative (false negative) electrocardiographic signs of LVH. In this study 69 patients (34.5%) had echocardiographic LVH, as defined by a LVM index exceeding 125 g/m2 for men and 112 g/m2 for women. Almost all criteria demonstrated high levels of specificity (> or = 89%). In the whole group the Lewis index ((RI - RIII)+(SIII - SI) > or = 17 mm) showed a slight superiority in diagnosing LVH (sensitivity = 43%) in comparison to the remaining criteria; the confidence intervals estimate of sensitivities confirmed such diagnostic superiority only with respect to those criteria with a sensitivity < or = 17%. However, the use of McNemar's test to compare sensitivities of all electrocardiographic criteria at matched specificities (> or = 95%) did not show significant differences (P < .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: Arterial stiffness may contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). This study was conducted to evaluate the independent factor of LVH and the quantification of LVH by electrocardiogram (ECG) to predict the degree of aortic stiffness using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in subjects with hypertension. A total of 984 consecutive patients who were diagnosed as having essential hypertension were entered into the study. baPWV determination, ECG and blood sampling were performed after a 12-hour overnight fast. LVH was diagnosed using electrocardiography; Romhilt-Estes point score was subsequently calculated. Participants were separated into LVH and non-LVH groups. Additional factors associated with LVH were examined using multivariate analyses. The non-LVH groups were younger (P = 0.001), had less men (P = 0.001), lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure (P < 0.001 for each) and lower baPWV (P < 0.001). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sex, age, systolic blood pressure and baPWV are independent factors. Using a baPWV value of 1825 cm/sec, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.644 and the highest discriminating sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 65%, respectively. Aortic stiffness may be related to electrocardiographically determined LVH in patients with hypertension. Thus, stiffening of large arteries, together with increased systolic blood pressure, seems to significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of LVH. Quantification of LVH by ECG can also predict the degree of aortic stiffness.The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 01/2012; 344(3):190-3. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim. To assess the variability and concordance of left ventricular hypertrophy electrocardiographic (LVH-ECG) criteria. Methods and Results. Convenience sampling of hypertensive subjects without coronary disease or bundle branch blocks. Two electrocardiograms (ECGs) were performed on each patient. Two investigators carried out two blind-readings of each ECG (Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria). The between-rater and within-rater reliability were assessed (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC). Poor concordance was defined: mean voltage difference between both ECGs >2 mm; 824 ECG readings were performed in 103 subjects (58.3% females), aged 66.8±8.8 years, mean blood pressure 141±15.10/78±9.0 mmHg. The between-rater ICCs of the baseline ECG were 0.97(95% CI 0.96-0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99) for Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria, respectively. Poor concordance was found in 39.8% and in 41.7% of the cases for Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was found to be significant and positively associated with both criteria. Elderly hypertensive subjects, with higher ECG voltages and lower pulse pressure presented poor concordance of Cornell criteria. Conclusions. The between-rater and within-rater reliability of Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria is minimal. Approximately 40% of hypertensive subjects presented poor concordance in a second ECG. Older patients with lower pulse pressure and higher baseline voltages presented poorer reproducibility of LVH-ECG criteria.Blood pressure 05/2012; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is a state-of-the-art technology that provides an accurate noninvasive method to quantify left ventricular mass for analysis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We aimed to examine seven ECG-based LVH criteria against two CT indexation criteria for LVH: a CT-specific body surface area cutoff and the obesity-independent height criteria. In 333 patients (mean age 53 +/- 12 years, 61% men), 64-slice contrast-enhanced CT was performed and 12-lead surface ECG within 24 h. Left ventricular mass was measured at end-diastole. Using both CT indexation criteria, the cohort was subdivided into patients with LVH and without LVH. The seven ECG criteria for LVH were the Cornell voltage index, Cornell voltage duration product, Cornell/strain index, Sokolow-Lyon index, Romhilt-Estes scores at least 4 and at least 5, and Gubner-Ungerleider. The ECG parameters had high specificities (85-97%) and variable low sensitivities (4-43%) when compared to either CT criteria of LVH. The three Cornell-based methods performed the best (test-positive likelihood ratio: 4.5-6.7), followed by the Sokolow-Lyon and Romhilt-Estes scores (test-positive likelihood ratio: 2.3-4.0). With the exception of the Gubner-Ungerleider criterion, the other six ECG criteria were associated with at least one of the CT-based LVH (adjusted odds ratio 2.4-9.5) and had incremental predictive value beyond that of hypertension history. Using cardiac CT as a gold standard for LVH assessment, ECG criteria for LVH have high specificities with the three Cornell-based criteria providing the best test performance for identifying patients with LVH.Journal of hypertension 05/2010; 28(9):1959-67. · 4.02 Impact Factor