Assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension. A rational basis for the electrocardiogram.
ABSTRACT There is a large body of evidence that the electrocardiogram (ECG) is insensitive in the recognition of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), in comparison with the echocardiogram; however, its specificity is high. In this study we further analyzed the performance of the ECG in detecting LVH in 200 consecutive patients (124 men and 76 women, mean age 50.9 years) with mild to moderate essential hypertension, using echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass (LVM) as the standard for comparison. To test the hypothesis that, owing to the high number of true positive findings, the ECG may still be useful for clinical purposes by selecting subsets of hypertensives with higher degrees of LVH, we compared the mean values of LVM index corresponding to either positive (true positive) or negative (false negative) electrocardiographic signs of LVH. In this study 69 patients (34.5%) had echocardiographic LVH, as defined by a LVM index exceeding 125 g/m2 for men and 112 g/m2 for women. Almost all criteria demonstrated high levels of specificity (> or = 89%). In the whole group the Lewis index ((RI - RIII)+(SIII - SI) > or = 17 mm) showed a slight superiority in diagnosing LVH (sensitivity = 43%) in comparison to the remaining criteria; the confidence intervals estimate of sensitivities confirmed such diagnostic superiority only with respect to those criteria with a sensitivity < or = 17%. However, the use of McNemar's test to compare sensitivities of all electrocardiographic criteria at matched specificities (> or = 95%) did not show significant differences (P < .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Article: HypertensionArchives of Cardiovascular Diseases. 04/2008; 101(4):250–254.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: It has been suggested that hypertension (HTN) is associated with certain target organ damage (TOD) and related clinical conditions. On the other hand, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular events and death. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between HTN-induced LVH and TOD (retinopathy and renal failure). Methods: We assessed 102 hypertensive subjects (43 males and 59 females) with a mean age of 60.2 +/− 8.8 (range 35-81) years. LVH was defined as a left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of more than 51 and 47 g/(m (to the power of 2.7)), in men and women, respectively. The degree of retinopathy on ophthalmological examination was defined according to the Keith-Wagener classification. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urine protein concentrations were also measured. Results: Hypertensive retinopathy was found in 94 (92.2 percent) cases (Grades I 55.9 percent; II 28.5 percent; III 3.9 percent; IV: 3.9 percent). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum creatinine concentration showed significant correlation with the severity of LVH. There was no significant relationship between LVH severity and retinopathy or proteinuria. Conclusion: The tight control of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the first step of essential hypertension can assist to postpone LVH. Furthermore, routine measurement of serum creatinine can predict the risk of cardiovascular complications in the hypertensive patient.
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ABSTRACT: Aim. To assess the variability and concordance of left ventricular hypertrophy electrocardiographic (LVH-ECG) criteria. Methods and Results. Convenience sampling of hypertensive subjects without coronary disease or bundle branch blocks. Two electrocardiograms (ECGs) were performed on each patient. Two investigators carried out two blind-readings of each ECG (Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria). The between-rater and within-rater reliability were assessed (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC). Poor concordance was defined: mean voltage difference between both ECGs >2 mm; 824 ECG readings were performed in 103 subjects (58.3% females), aged 66.8±8.8 years, mean blood pressure 141±15.10/78±9.0 mmHg. The between-rater ICCs of the baseline ECG were 0.97(95% CI 0.96-0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99) for Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria, respectively. Poor concordance was found in 39.8% and in 41.7% of the cases for Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was found to be significant and positively associated with both criteria. Elderly hypertensive subjects, with higher ECG voltages and lower pulse pressure presented poor concordance of Cornell criteria. Conclusions. The between-rater and within-rater reliability of Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria is minimal. Approximately 40% of hypertensive subjects presented poor concordance in a second ECG. Older patients with lower pulse pressure and higher baseline voltages presented poorer reproducibility of LVH-ECG criteria.Blood pressure 05/2012; · 1.26 Impact Factor