The role of intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was prospectively evaluated in 514 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Before surgery, all patients were assigned to one of three groups depending on the likelihood of their having common bile duct stones. Stratification was based on objective historical, laboratory, or radiologic criteria. In 453 patients deemed unlikely to have stones, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed without cholangiography. Of these patients, four had retained stones (0.9%). In 25 patients likely to have stones, preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography identified stones in six patients (24%). In 36 patients whose likelihood of having stones was deemed indeterminate, intraoperative cholangiography was performed at laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A common bile duct stone was identified in one patient (2.8%). One common bile duct injury occurred in the group deemed unlikely to have stones, and this injury would not have been prevented by intraoperative cholangiography. We conclude that preoperative assessment will identify common bile duct stones and that routine cholangiography is not warranted. Meticulous dissection of the cystic duct at its origin at the infundibulum will prevent common bile duct injury.
"There remains ongoing controversy regarding the role of routine versus selective intraoperative cholangiography (IOC)     . It is argued that routine cholangiography prevents common bile duct injury, but this is controversial. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has supplanted open cholecystectomy for most gallbladder pathology. Experience has allowed the development of now well-established technical nuances, and training has raised the level of performance so that safe LC is possible. If safe cholecystectomy cannot be performed because of acute inflammation, LC tube placement should occur. A systematic approach in every case to open a window beyond the triangle of Calot, well up onto the liver bed, is essential for the safe completion of the operation.
Surgical Clinics of North America 01/2009; 88(6):1295-313, ix. DOI:10.1016/j.suc.2008.07.005 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"The present results support the idea that patients with specific clinical and laboratory findings can be managed with pre- or postoperative ERCP without the performance of IOC. The same results have also been reported in other studies.21,22 However, controversy exists as to whether IOC should be performed routinely or selectively during LC. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is increasingly being used as an appropriate early treatment in patients with cholecystitis. This study evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and complications of LC in all cases of acute cholecystitis.
A retrospective study involved the patients who underwent LC for acute cholecystitis within 72 hours of admission. The preoperative diagnosis was based on clinical, laboratory, and echographic examinations, while the final diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of the excised gallbladder.
We identified 184 patients with acute cholecystitis. Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was not performed. Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed in 62 patients (33.7%), and postoperative ERCP in 13 patients (7.1%). Conversion to open cholecystectomy was necessary in 19 patients (10.3%); 16 patients for severe inflammation and adhesions and 3 patients because of uncontrolled bleeding. The mean operative time was 68 minutes. No deaths occurred. The overall complication rate was 6% with 3 postoperative bile leakages and 2 nonbilious subhepatic collections. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 2.8 days.
LC is a safe, effective procedure for the early management of patients with acute cholecystitis. LC can be safely performed without routine IOC when ERCP is performed preoperatively on the basis of specific indications. Meticulous dissection and good exposure of Calot's triangle may prevent bile duct injuries.
JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons 02/2007; 11(2):219-24. · 0.91 Impact Factor
"This was during the learning phase of the procedure. As our proficiency with the procedure increased and as prospective randomized studies suggested its more selective use in patients with clinical criteria suggesting choledocholithiasis, our percentage of positive IOC increased.38,39 In our entire series of 1625 patients, 1253 did not have their biliary tract imaged by IOC or ERCP. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluate changes in perioperative outcomes over an 82-month period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy by a single attending surgeon in an academic hospital.
A retrospective review of 1025 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy from September 1992 to February 1997 was compared to the initial 600 patients from May 1990 to August 1992. Statistical analysis included Chi square with Yates correction and Fischer's exact test.
Over the 82-month period there were no significant differences in the overall conversion rate to open cholecystectomy (p=0.26), intraoperative complications (p = 0.81), postoperative complications (p = 0.054) or mortality rates (p=0.66). There were 3 (0.5%) bile duct injuries in the initial 600 patients and only 1 (0.1%) in the group of 1025 patients (p=0.065). There was an increase (p<0.001) in laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed for acute cholecystitis and biliary dyskinesia and an increase (p<0.001) in the percentage of cases performed overall and for acute cholecystitis by the surgery residents over the last 54 months. Despite this, the conversion rates to open cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis decreased (p < 0.001) over the last 54 months. Additionally, more patients (p < 0.001) were discharged on the day of surgery in the most recent group.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely by surgery residents under the direct supervision of an experienced laparoscopist without significant changes in perioperative outcomes. Despite an increased percentage of cases being performed for acute cholecystitis over the last 54 months, conversion rates to open cholecystectomy and biliary tract injury rates have decreased, and the perioperative morbidity has remained the same.
JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons 03/1999; 3(1):9-17. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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