Efficacy of phenelzine and haloperidol in borderline personality disorder.
ABSTRACT To compare the efficacy of a neuroleptic (haloperidol) to a monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressant (phenelzine sulfate) against the affective, cognitive, and impulsive-aggressive symptoms of criteria-defined borderline inpatients in an effort to dissect apart affective and schizotypal symptom patterns or subtypes using medication response.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Inpatient unit of a tertiary care university psychiatric hospital serving a large public catchment area.
One hundred eight consecutively admitted borderline inpatients defined by Gunderson's Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and DSM-III-R criteria, randomly assigned to 38 phenelzine, 36 haloperidol, and 34 placebo trials.
Following 1 week free of medication, haloperidol (average dose, 4 mg/d), phenelzine sulfate (average dose, 60 mg/d), or placebo were given for 5 weeks with weekly symptom ratings and plasma drug level determinations.
Efficacy was measured on depression (Hamilton Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory), global severity (Global Assessment Scale, Symptom Checklist-90 items [SCL-90]), anxiety, anger-hostility (SCL-90, Inpatient Multidimensional Psychiatric Scale [IMPS], Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory), psychoticism (Schizotypal Symptom Inventory, SCL-90, IMPS), impulsivity (Ward Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Self-Report Test of Impulse Control), and borderline psychotherapy (Borderline Syndrome Index).
Three-way comparisons between groups indicated superior efficacy for phenelzine, followed by placebo and haloperidol on measures of depression, borderline psychopathologic symptoms, and anxiety. Pairwise comparisons between medication and placebo revealed significant efficacy for phenelzine against anger and hostility but no efficacy against atypical depression or hysteroid dysphoria. We were unable to replicate prior reports of efficacy for the neuroleptic.
Pharmacologic dissection of borderline personality disorder patients into affective and schizotypal subtypes could not be demonstrated.
- SourceAvailable from: Motohide Furuya[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Numerous medications have been tested on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although many of these medications have been demonstrated to be useful, no clear main treatment for BPD has emerged. Despite the efficacy of some of the medicines, acceptability and side effects have proven to be barriers to their use. Recent studies indicate that the traditional Chinese herbal medicine yi-gan san (YGS, yokukan-san in Japanese) may be safe and useful in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia patients. We aimed at evaluating both efficacy and safety of yi-gan san in patients with well-defined BPD. Twenty female outpatients diagnosed with BPD according to DSM-IV criteria and the revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines completed a 12-week open-label study with yi-gan san at an average daily dosage of 6.4+/-1.9 g (2.5-7.5 g). Psychometric instruments to assess efficacy included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression (HAM-D), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI), and Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Most psychometric scale scores exhibited a highly significant improvement (total BPRS; BPRS somatic concern, anxiety, tension, depressive mood, hostility, suspiciousness, motor retardation, uncooperativeness, and excitement subscale; CGI; GAF; AQ) over time. In this open-label pilot study, patients treated with YGS showed statistically significant reduction on self-rated and clinician-rated scales. The present findings suggest that yi-gan san might be effective for the treatment of a number of BPD symptoms, including low mood, impulsivity, and aggression.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 02/2008; 32(1):150-4. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.07.026 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review examines whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be considered part of the bipolar spectrum. A literature review examined studies of co-occurrence, phenomenology, family prevalence, medication response, longitudinal course, and etiology. Borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder co-occur, but their relationship is not consistent or specific. There are overlaps but important differences in phenomenology and in medication response. Family studies suggest clear distinctions, and it is unusual for BPD to evolve into bipolar disorder. Research is insufficient to establish whether these disorders have a common etiology. Existing data fail to support the conclusion that BPD and bipolar disorders exist on a spectrum but allows for the possibility of partially overlapping etiologies.Comprehensive Psychiatry 03/2007; 48(2):145-54. DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2006.10.001 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To systematically review the evidence for pharmacologic management of outwardly directed aggressive behavior in general adult psychiatry. Literature searches in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane libraries from 1966 through March 2005 were used to identify relevant studies. The keywords aggression, violence, anger, and hostility combined with drug therapy, psychotropic drugs, adrenergic beta-antagonists, anticonvulsants, anti-depressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, and lithium were searched. Furthermore, the retrieved publications were searched for additional references. All randomized controlled trials addressing pharmacotherapy for aggression or aggression-related symptoms were included, except studies addressing the "emergency situation" and studies conducted in specialized psychiatric or non-psychiatric settings. Evidence synthesis was performed using the "best-evidence principle." Two authors independently adjudicated methodological quality and generalizability to daily clinical practice. Thirty-five randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. On the basis of a best-evidence synthesis model, weak evidence for antiaggressive effects of antipsychotics, anti-depressants, anticonvulsants, and beta-adrenergic-blocking drugs was found. Atypical antipsychotics appeared superior to typical antipsychotics. The use of various outcome measures and insufficient data reporting in the individual studies hampered the quantitative assessment of efficacy across studies. Further limitations of the available randomized controlled trials included small sample sizes, short study duration, and poor generalizability to daily clinical practice setting. Whereas pharmacotherapy is frequently applied in aggressive patients, only weak evidence of efficacy of various drug classes was found. Consensus about the use of aggression measurement scales in clinical trials is necessary for future research. Furthermore, large-scale trials with more naturalistic designs, as opposed to classical randomized controlled trials with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, may be advisable in order to obtain results that are more generalizable to daily clinical practice.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 08/2006; 67(7):1013-24. DOI:10.4088/JCP.v67n0702 · 5.14 Impact Factor