Microbial colonisation of human tooth surfaces

Royal Dental College, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Denmark.
APMIS. Supplementum 02/1993; 32:1-45.
Source: PubMed
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    • "n the beginning of the 1980's, data on root caries were very sparse (for review, see Nyvad and Fejerskov, 1982; Fejerskov and Nyvad, 1986). During the last decade, however, an increasing number of studies has dealt with this disease entity, epidemiologically (Beck, 1990), microbiologically (Bowden, 1990; Nyvad, 1993), and from a histopathologic (Fejerskov and Nyvad, 1992, 1993) point of view. "
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    ABSTRACT: The large variety of diagnostic criteria used adds some uncertainty to comparisons of recent clinical and epidemiological data on root caries in Scandinavia. Nevertheless, it is apparent that the prevalence of frank carious cavities on the root among 60(+)-year-olds is about 30-40%. When inactive and recurrent lesions and fillings are included, the prevalence is almost 100% in 60(+)-year-olds. At this age, the mean number of root surface fillings is about 7, and the mean number of active caries lesions ranges from 0.9 to 3.4. The degree of gingival recession does not appear to be a direct measure of root caries risk in a population. When the number of teeth at risk is accounted for, the age-dependent increase in prevalence of root caries is very weak. Therefore, comparisons of root caries prevalence between populations are meaningful only when information on number of teeth present and teeth at risk is also available. Recent studies from various parts of the world have demonstrated that caries is ubiquitous in all populations and that caries progression continues throughout life. The impact of this on trends in prevalence and incidence of dental caries in adults is discussed in the light of what is known about the natural history of dental caries.
    Advances in Dental Research 08/1993; 7(1):4-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Giventhehypothesis that root caries istheresult of acidformation byacidogenic micro-organisms, thepresent study wasperformed torelate sucrose-induced pHresponse ofdentalplaqueon rootsurfaces tothemicrobial composition oftheoverlying plaque. Seventeen caries-active elderly Chinese withpoororal hygiene andwithbothsound andcarious rootsurfaces wereexamined. Plaque pH was measured before anduptoonehourafter acontrolled sucrose mouthrinse. Plaquesamples formicrobiologic analyses werecollected from2soundand2or3carious pH- measurement sites ineachsubject. Theprevalence ofthe following micro-organisms wasassessed as% oftotal viable countsonBrucella agar: Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, Capnocytophaga spp., Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundi, Streptococcus spp., S.sanguis, S.mitis, S.mutans, S. sobrinus, Lactobacillus spp., andCandida spp.There wasno difference inplaque pHresponse onsoundandcarious root surfaces. Theplaque pHresponse wasmorepronounced in themaxilla thaninthemandible forbothsoundandcarious sites. There wasnodifference inmicrobial composition of dental plaque onsoundandcarious rootsurfaces. ThepH response tosucrose wasthesameregardless ofthepresence orabsence ofmutansstreptococci. Ourresults thusdonot readily support thetraditional concept ofcaries formation.
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    ABSTRACT: Dental plaque is the diverse microbial community found on the tooth surface embedded in a matrix of polymers of bacterial and salivary origin. Once a tooth surface is cleaned, a conditioning film of proteins and glycoproteins is adsorbed rapidly to the tooth surface. Plaque formation involves the interaction between early bacterial colonisers and this film (the acquired enamel pellicle). To facilitate colonisation of the tooth surface, some receptors on salivary molecules are only exposed to bacteria once the molecule is adsorbed to a surface. Subsequently, secondary colonisers adhere to the already attached early colonisers (co-aggregation) through specific molecular interactions. These can involve protein-protein or carbohydrate-protein (lectin) interactions, and this process contributes to determining the pattern of bacterial succession. As the biofilm develops, gradients in biologically significant factors develop, and these permit the co-existence of species that would be incompatible with each other in a homogenous environment. Dental plaque develops naturally, but it is also associated with two of the most prevalent diseases affecting industrialised societies (caries and periodontal diseases). Future strategies to control dental plaque will be targeted to interfering with the formation, structure and pattern of development of this biofilm.
    Journal of Industrial Microbiology 10/1995; 15(3):169-75. DOI:10.1007/BF01569822
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