Ubiquitous somatic mutations in simple repeated sequences reveal a new mechanism for colonic carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT Spontaneous errors in DNA replication have been suggested to play a significant role in neoplastic transformation and to explain the chromosomal alterations seen in cancer cells. A defective replication factor could increase the mutation rate in clonal variants arising during tumour progression, but despite intensive efforts, increases in tumour cell mutation rates have not been unambiguously shown. Here we use an unbiased genomic fingerprinting technique to show that 12 per cent of colorectal carcinomas carry somatic deletions in poly(dA.dT) sequences and other simple repeats. We estimate that cells from these tumours can carry more than 100,000 such mutations. Only tumours with affected poly(dA.dT) sequences carry mutations in the other simple repeats examined, and such mutations can be found in all neoplastic regions of multiple tumours from the same patient, including adenomas. Tumours with these mutations show distinctive genotypic and phenotypic features. We conclude that these mutations reflect a previously undescribed form of carcinogenesis in the colon (predisposition to which may be inherited) mediated by a mutation in a DNA replication factor resulting in reduced fidelity for replication or repair (a 'mutator mutation').
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ABSTRACT: Loss of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) function, due to somatic or germline epi/genetic alterations of MMR genes leads to the accumulation of numerous mutations across the genome, creating a molecular phenotype known as microsatellite instability (MSI). In gastric cancer (GC), MSI occurs in about 15% to 30% of the cases. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition of MSI in GC as well as on the clinic, pathologic and molecular consequences of the MSI phenotype. Additionally, current therapeutic strategies for GC and their applicability in the MSI subset are also discussed.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 11/2014; 20(44):16433-16442.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with pulmonary neoplasms have an increased risk for developing a second tumor of the lung, either at the same time or different times. It is important to determine if the second tumor represents an independent primary tumor or recurrence/metastasis, because it will significantly change the management and prognosis. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) represents molecular disorders acquired by the cell during neoplastic transformation. Both are associated with genetic instability. Functional silencing of tumour suppressor genes may be the consequence of genomic instability, particularly of the globally occurring LOH phenomenon. Numerous studies have confirmed the role of MSI/LOH at both the early and the late stages of multiple primary lung cancer. This paper reviews the published literatures focused on the role of MSI/LOH significance in multiple primary lung cancer. Additionally, a new method based on the allelic variations at polymorphic microsatellite markers was offered that it does not rely on collection of normal tissue, performed with minimal tumor sample, and will complement clinical criteria for diagnostic discrimination between multiple primary cancers versus solitary metastatic diseases.Journal of thoracic disease. 10/2014; 6(10):1499-505.
- Cardiovascular Research 01/1999; 42(3):728-732. · 5.81 Impact Factor