Neurology of developmental dyslexia.

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology (Impact Factor: 6.77). 05/1993; 3(2):237-42. DOI: 10.1016/0959-4388(93)90216-L
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Developmental dyslexia was until recently considered to belong solely in the domain of educational psychology. With the advent of better theories on language and reading, and better methods for assessing the structure and function of living human brains and for determining genetic transmission, dyslexia is now poised to become a focal concern of cognitive neuroscience, neurology, and genetic research. Still unresolved are questions relating to how much a reading disability represents a normal variation or a separate pathological entity, and whether the cognitive disorder is primarily cognitive, or secondary to a disorder in early perception. Recent findings from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropsychology, and genetics research are reviewed. (This review is an updated version of a review first published in Current Opinion In Neurology and Neurosurgery 1992, 5:71-76.)

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    ABSTRACT: In this chapter we will engage in a theoretical quest for ways to ameliorate reading fluency in dyslexics. In the first section we will provide an overview of research on dyslexia and dyslexia treatment and we will discuss the limitations of traditional interventions to ameliorate the poor reading fluency of dyslexic children. In the second section of the chapter we will have a closer look on reading fluency, often referred to as the "neglected" aspect of reading. We will discuss the essential role of extensive reading experience in the development of reading fluency and focus on repeated reading, the most familiar and most researched approach to fluency training. A state of the art overview of insights from cognitive neuroscience, concerning fluent and disrupted reading, will be given in the third section of the chapter. In this light we will discuss cognitive, neurobiological and connectionist models on reading development and additionally focus on other areas of skill learning, such as chess. In the fourth section we will amalgamate the various insights, draw several conclusions regarding fluency-oriented instructional practices, and proposed some new directions for dyslexia treatment. Additionally, we will demonstrate the unique possibilities provided by edugames, or computer-game training, for the implementation of the proposed educational principles. As an example we will present an edugame, called LexyLink, which we developed in our own laboratory and which we are currently testing in our institute.
    Educational Psychology: Cognition and Learning, Individual Differences and Motivation, Edited by Larson, 01/2009: chapter 3: pages 115-143; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-60692-276-7
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    ABSTRACT: Dyslexia is generally diagnosed in childhood and is characterised by poor literacy skills with associated phonological and perceptual problems. Compensated dyslexic readers are adult readers who have a documented history of childhood dyslexia but as adults can read and comprehend written text well. Uncompensated dyslexic readers are adults who similarly have a documented history of reading impairment but remain functionally reading-impaired all their lives. There is little understanding of the neurophysiological basis for how or why some children become compensated, while others do not, and there is little knowledge about neurophysiological changes that occur with remedial programs for reading disability. This paper will review research looking at reading remediation, particularly in the context of the underlying neurophysiology.
    01/2014; 2014:802741. DOI:10.1155/2014/802741
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    ABSTRACT: Observable behavior, such as test scores, is the gold standard by which we make judgments about levels of function, grade placements, and the presence/absence of pathology. Individual differences in test performance have long intrigued researchers and clinicians, and some have noted how people can come up with essentially the same answers using different strategies. Thus, product, or overt test score, does not always tell us about the underlying cognitive or neurological process involved. We provide results from an ongoing brain imaging study of spatially superior–reading disabled adults, showing how different, hitherto unseen, neural processes can yield similar overt test behavior in some domains and not others. These data raise our awareness of how individual differences in neurology might be considered alongside behavioral observations. Implications for practice and how these data address assumptions in the twice-exceptional field are discussed.
    Roeper Review 10/2013; 35(4):241-253. DOI:10.1080/02783193.2013.825365

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