Sepúlveda, S. et al. Low spinal and pelvic bone mineral density among individuals with Down syndrome. Am. J. Ment. Retard. 100, 109-114

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, USA.
American journal of mental retardation: AJMR (Impact Factor: 2.51). 10/1995; 100(2):109-14.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The bone mineral density of 15 adults with Down syndrome was compared to 25 control subjects without Down syndrome. Bone mineral density was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry with a Lunar DPX scanner. Arm, leg, pelvic, and spine bone mineral density was tested. Analysis of covariance was conducted for each variable; Down syndrome was the independent variable, and the covariates were height, lean body mass, fat mass, age, and gender. No significant group differences were found for arm or leg bone mineral density. Individuals with Down syndrome had significantly lower pelvic and spinal bone mineral density. Before adjustment for covariates, percentage difference between group means for spine was 14.5% and for pelvis, 11.6%. Adjusted percentage was 11.1% and 13.9%, respectively. Suggestions for further research were made.

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    • "Several investigators, including ourselves have reported that adults (and children) with DS have lower bone mass, expressed as BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, compared with their peers without mental retardation or with mental retardation but without DS [5], [10], [11], [12], [13]. Known secondary causes for low BMD include dietary insufficiency (vitamin D and calcium intake), endocrine (hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypogonadism), and autoimmune disorders (celiac disease) which lead to inadequate nutrition. "
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    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42967. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042967 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Unlike most femoral neck fractures caused by minor trauma, those resulting from seizures may be significantly more comminuted. This is likely the effect of persistent muscle contracture during the seizure, but also due to increased rates of osteopenia in epileptic patients and decreased bone mineral density in individuals with Down syndrome.8–10 There is also evidence to suggest that certain antiepileptic medications, particularly phenytoin, are associated with decreased bone mineral density.11,12 "
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