Pseudomelanosis duodeni is an uncommon endoscopic sign characterized by diffuse small black spots on the first and second portions of the duodenum. It occurs predominantly in female and elderly patients and is linked to chronic illnesses and related medications. Between 1988 and 1994, the authors saw eight patients with pseudomelanosis duodeni. To evaluate the nature of the pigments, special staining was performed in seven cases. Iron stain was strongly positive in three cases. Electron microscopy was performed in two cases. This revealed amorphous bodies within macrophage lysosomes in one case and angular crystals in another case. These tests suggest that in pseudomelanosis duodeni iron metabolism may be impaired and iron is pooled within macrophages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FimH is an adhesive subunit of type 1 fimbriae expressed by different enterobacterial species. The enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae is an environmental organism that is also a frequent cause of sepsis, urinary tract infection (UTI), and liver abscess. Type
1 fimbriae have been shown to be critical for the ability of K. pneumoniae to cause UTI in a murine model. We show here that the K. pneumoniae fimH gene is found in 90% of strains from various environmental and clinical sources. The fimH alleles exhibit relatively low nucleotide and structural diversity but are prone to frequent horizontal-transfer events between
different bacterial clones. Addition of the fimH locus to multiple-locus sequence typing significantly improved the resolution of the clonal structure of pathogenic strains,
including the K1 encapsulated liver isolates. In addition, the K. pneumoniae FimH protein is targeted by adaptive point mutations, though not to the same extent as FimH from uropathogenic Escherichia coli or TonB from the same K. pneumoniae strains. Such adaptive mutations include a single amino acid deletion from the signal peptide that might affect the length
of the fimbrial rod by affecting FimH translocation into the periplasm. Another FimH mutation (S62A) occurred in the course
of endemic circulation of a nosocomial uropathogenic clone of K. pneumoniae. This mutation is identical to one found in a highly virulent uropathogenic strain of E. coli, suggesting that the FimH mutations are pathoadaptive in nature. Considering the abundance of type 1 fimbriae in Enterobacteriaceae, our present finding that fimH genes are subject to adaptive microevolution substantiates the importance of type 1 fimbria-mediated adhesion in K. pneumoniae.
Journal of bacteriology 02/2009; 191(6):1941-50. DOI:10.1128/JB.00601-08 · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FimH, the adhesive subunit of type 1 fimbriae expressed by many enterobacteria, mediates mannose-sensitive binding to target host cells. At the same time, fine receptor-structural specificities of FimH from different species can be substantially different, affecting bacterial tissue tropism and, as a result, the role of the particular fimbriae in pathogenesis. In this study, we compared functional properties of the FimH proteins from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are both 279 amino acids in length but differ by some approximately 15% of residues. We show that K. pneumoniae FimH is unable to mediate adhesion in a monomannose-specific manner via terminally exposed Manalpha(1-2) residues in N-linked oligosaccharides, which are the structural basis of the tropism of E. coli FimH for uroepithelial cells. However, K. pneumoniae FimH can bind to the terminally exposed Manalpha(1-3)Manbeta(1-4)GlcNAcbeta1 trisaccharide, though only in a shear-dependent manner, wherein the binding is marginal at low shear force but enhanced sevenfold under increased shear. A single mutation in the K. pneumoniae FimH, S62A, converts the mode of binding from shear dependent to shear independent. This mutation has occurred naturally in the course of endemic circulation of a nosocomial uropathogenic clone and is identical to a pathogenicity-adaptive mutation found in highly virulent uropathogenic strains of E. coli, in which it also eliminates the dependence of E. coli binding on shear. The shear-dependent binding properties of the K. pneumoniae and E. coli FimH proteins are mediated via an allosteric catch bond mechanism. Thus, despite differences in FimH structure and fine receptor specificity, the shear-dependent nature of FimH-mediated adhesion is highly conserved between bacterial species, supporting its remarkable physiological significance.
Journal of bacteriology 10/2009; 191(21):6592-601. DOI:10.1128/JB.00786-09 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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