Electrophysiological evaluation of spinal reflexes during epidural anesthesia in an experimental model
Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.Muscle & Nerve (Impact Factor: 2.28). 01/1996; 19(1):29-36. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(199601)19:1<29::AID-MUS5>3.0.CO;2-A
We assessed the effects of epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine in the rat by serial recordings of spinal reflexes. The H wave from plantar muscles after electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve evaluates a large nerve fiber spinal reflex arch. The extensor reflex response recorded from quadriceps muscle after stimulation of the contralateral tibial nerve assesses a reflex arch with small fiber afferents. After epidural injection of 0.2 mL of bupivacaine (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0% solutions) at the L5-L6 vertebral space, nociceptive, H, and extensor reflex responses were abolished within 1-3 min. Duration of complete blockade lasted 20-80 min, increasing with the anesthetic concentration, and complete recovery occurred after an additional period of 30-40 min. The responses recovered to amplitudes similar to preanesthesia controls, indicating that there was no damage to the nervous system. This study shows that electrophysiological recording and quantitation of nerve reflex responses is a useful and accurate method to evaluate the efficacy of local anesthetic agents.
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ABSTRACT: Previously, we have shown that transplants of olfactory bulb ensheathing cells promoted regeneration of transected dorsal roots into the spinal cord. In this study, we assessed the ability of regenerating axons to make functional connections in the cord. Dorsal roots L3 to L6 were sectioned close to their entrance into the spinal cord and reapposed after injecting a suspension of ensheathing cells into each dorsal root entry zone (Group G). Afferent regeneration into the cord and recovery of spinal reflexes were compared with animals that received no injection (Group S) or culture medium without cells (Group C). Electrophysiological tests, to measure nerve conduction and spinal reflexes (H response and withdrawal reflex) evoked by stimulation of afferents of the sciatic nerve, were performed. At 14 days after surgery, H response was found in only 1 of 7 rats of Group G, and withdrawal reflexes were absent from all animals. At 60 days, the H response reappeared in 7 of 10 rats of Group G, and 1 of 5 of each of Groups C and S. The withdrawal reflex recovered in 4 of 10 rats of Group G, but in none of Groups C and S. Immunohistochemical labeling for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rats of Group G showed immunoreactive fibers entering the dorsal horn from sectioned roots, although at lower density than in the contralateral side. In conclusion, transplanted ensheathing cells promoted central regeneration and functional reconnection of regenerating sensory afferents.Annals of Neurology 03/1999; 45(2):207-15. DOI:10.1002/1531-8249(199902)45:23.0.CO;2-K · 9.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed the effect of a lipid emulsion of bupivacaine on prolonging peripheral nerve and epidural anesthetic blockade in the rat. The intensity and duration of motor and sensory blockade produced by a single injection of aqueous solution (BPV-as) and lipid emulsion (BPV-em) preparations of 0.5% bupivacaine were evaluated by electrophysiological methods. Both preparations induced complete, reversible motor and sensory blockade after injection. The latency time to the maximal blockade and the duration of anesthetic blockade were more prolonged for BPV-em than for BPV-as. The increase in duration of maximal blockade was 1.4 times for nerve and 1.3 times for epidural anesthesia. Histological evaluation of spinal roots and spinal cord sections did not show any abnormalities or differences between animals injected with BPV-as and those injected with BPV-em. Pharmacokinetic studies showed lower plasma peak concentration and a longer elimination half-life for BPV-em than for BPV-as. Thus, BPV-em prolongs the effects of local anesthetics, allows a similar degree of blockade, and reduces the systems toxic effects of anesthetics compared with BPV-as. IMPLICATIONS: We assessed a lipid emulsion containing bupivacaine for peripheral nerve and epidural anesthetic blockade in the rat. The emulsion allowed a complete blockade, while increasing the duration of the anesthetic effect (by 30%-40%), compared with the standard bupivacaine aqueous solution.Anesthesia & Analgesia 08/1999; 89(1):121-7. DOI:10.1097/00000539-199907000-00021 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes a new tripolar spiral cuff electrode, composed of a thin (10 microm) and flexible polyimide insulating carrier and three circumneural platinum electrodes, suitable for stimulation of peripheral nerves. The cuffs were implanted around the sciatic nerve of two groups of ten rats each, one in which the polyimide ribbon was attached to a plastic connector to characterize the in vivo stimulating properties of the electrode, and one without a connector for testing possible mechanical nerve damage by means of functional and histological methods. The polyimide cuff electrodes induced only a very mild foreign body reaction and did not change the nerve shape over a 2-6 month implantation period. There were no changes in the motor and sensory nerve conduction tests, nociceptive responses and walking track pattern over follow-up, and no morphological evidence of axonal loss or demyelination, except in one case with partial demyelination of some large fibers after 6 months. By delivering single electrical pulses through the cuff electrodes graded recruitment curves of alpha-motor nerve fibers were obtained. Recruitment of all motor units was achieved with a mean charge density lower than 4 microC/cm(2) for a pulse width of 50 micros at the time of implantation as well as 45 days thereafter. These data indicate that the polyimide cuff electrode is a stable stimulating device, with physical properties and dimensions that avoid nerve compression or activity-induced axonal damage.Journal of Neuroscience Methods 07/2000; 98(2):105-18. DOI:10.1016/S0165-0270(00)00192-8 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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