Interferon-gamma-induced downregulation of CD4 inhibits the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 in primary monocytes.
Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Md., USA. Pathobiology
(Impact Factor: 2.48).
We have previously shown that the treatment of monocytes with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) prior to exposure with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) results in complete inhibition of HIV infection of monocytes. In the present report, we have extended this study to obtain information on the mechanism(s) underlying IFN-gamma-induced inhibition of HIV infection of monocytes. To examine the effect of IFN-gamma on HIV entry, the first event in the infectious cycle of the virus, we amplified HIV-gag sequences in the genomic DNA and RNA of IFN-gamma treated monocytes, and found no evidence for the presence of either proviral DNA or HIV RNA sequences. These results were consistent with the absence of intracellular HIV particles either in the latent or actively replicating state as determined by flow-cytometric analysis of these cells. Furthermore, no HIV-induced cytopathic effects, such as multinucleated giant cell formation or cell death, were observed in IFN-gamma-treated monocytes after their exposure to HIV. Stimulation of IFN-gamma-treated monocytes 6 days postinfection with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which is known to augment HIV replication in the infected cells, did not result in the induction of the HIV indicating the absence of latent HIV infection in IFN-gamma-treated monocytes. Treatment of monocytes with IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or with a combination of the two agents which is known to induce antimicrobial free radical nitric oxide (NO2- in the murine system did not induce NO2- production human monocytes suggesting the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma to be independent of NO2(-)-mediated killing of HIV or HIV-infected monocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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