A cross-coupling model of vertical vergence adaptation.
ABSTRACT Vertical disparity vergence aligns the two eyes in response to vertical misalignment (disparity) of the two ocular images. An adaptive response to vertical disparity vergence is demonstrated by the continuation of vertical vergence when one eye is occluded. The adaptive response is quantified by vertical phoria, the eye alignment error during monocular viewing. Vertical phoria can be differentially adapted to vertical disparities of opposite sign located at two positions along the horizontal or vertical head-referenced axes. Vertical phoria aftereffects vary in amplitude as the eyes move from one adapted direction of gaze to another along the adaptation axis. A cross-coupling model was developed to account for the spatial variations of vertical phoria aftereffects. The model is constrained according to both single cell recordings of eye position sensitive neurons, and eye position measurements during and following adaptation. The vertical phoria is computed by scaling the activities of eye position sensitive neurons and converting the scaled activities into a vertical vergence signal. The three components of the model are: neural activities associated with conjugate eye position, cross-coupling weights to scale the activities, and vertical vergence transducers to convert the weighted activities to vertical vergence. The model provides a biologically plausible mechanism for vertical vergence adaptation.
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ABSTRACT: Precise binocular alignment of the visual axes is of utmost importance for good vision. The fact that so few of us ever experience diplopia is evidence of how well the oculomotor system performs this function in the face of changes due to development, disease and injury. The capacity of the oculomotor system to adapt to visual stimuli that mimic alignment deficits has been extensively explored in laboratory experiments. While the present paper reviews many of those studies, the primary focus is on issues involved in maintaining good vertical and torsional alignment in everyday viewing situations where the parsing of muscle forces may vary for the same horizontal and vertical eye positions due to changes in horizontal vergence and head posture.Vision Research 11/2006; 46(21):3537-48. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The near response is composed of cross-coupled interactions between convergence and other distance-related oculomotor responses including accommodation, vertical vergence, and cyclovergence. The cross-coupling interactions are analogous to the body postural reflexes that maintain balance. Near-response couplings guide involuntary motor responses during voluntary shifts of distance and direction of gaze without feedback from defocus or retinal-image disparity. They optimize the disparity stimulus for stereoscopic depth perception and can be modified by optically induced sensory demands placed on binocular vision. In natural viewing conditions, the near response is determined by passive orbital mechanics and active-adaptable tonic components. For example, the normal coupling of vertical vergence with convergence in tertiary gaze is partly a byproduct of passive orbital mechanics. Both, adapted changes of vertical vergence in response to anisophoria, produced by unequal ocular magnification (aniseikonia), and adapted changes in the orientation of Listing's plane in response to torsional disparities can be achieved by a combination of passive orbital mechanics and neural adjustments for the control of the vertical vergence and cyclovergence. Adaptive adjustments are coupled with gaze direction, convergence angle, and head tilt. Several adaptation studies suggest that it is possible to achieve non-linear changes in the coupling of both vertical vergence and cyclovergence with gaze direction. This coupling can be achieved with changes in neural control signals of ocular elevator muscles that are cross-coupled with both convergence and direction of tertiary gaze. These linear and non-linear coupling interactions can be adapted to compensate for (1) anisophoria induced by spectacle corrections for anisometropia, (2) accommodative esotropia, (3) convergence excess and insufficiency, and (4) non-concomitant deviations with ocular torticollis associated with trochlear palsy. The adaptable near-response couplings form the basis of an area of orthoptics that optimizes visual performance by facilitating our natural ability to calibrate neural pathways underlying binocular postural reflexes.Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 07/2009; 86(7):E788-802. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A patient can demonstrate a poor stereoscopic test or task performance for reasons inherent within the test/task itself for reasons dependent on normal physiology common to all human subjects, and also for reasons that are outside of normal physiology and are unique or idiosyncratic to a particular person's visual system. This article reviews the literature for the first two reasons, but emphasizes the pathophysiology involved in the idiosyncratic and abnormal reasons. Using control systems analysis, it is shown that deficits in stereoscopic performance can be explained by reference to the quantitative aspect of stereoscopic threshold and qualitative aspects such as speed of response, reliability-robustness, and strength of percept. The relationship between fixation disparity and stereopsis is seen to be central to this explanation. Proceeding from diagnosis to treatment, control systems analysis offers physiologically based explanations for the corrective procedures necessary to ameliorate abnormal conditions. Several topics for applied research in stereopsis are suggested.Optometry and Vision Science 04/2005; 82(3):186-205. · 1.90 Impact Factor