Percent body fat increases with age and is often accompanied by a loss in muscle mass, strength, and energy expenditure. The effects of 16 wk of resistive training (RT) alone or with weight loss (RTWL) on strength (isokinetic dynamometer), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), resting metabolic rate (RMR) (indirect calorimetry), and sympathetic nervous system activity (catecholamines) were examined in 15 postmenopausal women (50-69 yr). RT resulted in significant improvements in upper and lower body strength in both groups (P < 0.01). The nonobese women in the RT group (n = 8) did not change their body weight or fat mass with training. In the obese RTWL group (n = 7), body weight, fat mass, and percent body fat were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). Fat-free mass and RMR significantly increased with training in both groups combined (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in resting arterialized plasma norepinephrine or epinephrine levels in either group with training. RT increases strength with and without weight loss. Furthermore, RT and RTWL increase fat-free mass and RMR and decrease percent fat in postmenopausal women. Thus, RT may be a valuable component of an integrated weight management program in postmenopausal women.
"However, the same authors in a subsequent study showed that body weight and fat mass did not change with RT alone, but decreased with RT+WL . Nevertheless, RT and RT+WL both increased fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate in postmenopausal women . Considering the fact that subjects in RT group were nonobese and subjects in RT+WL group were obese postmenopausal women, the authors suggested that RT may be a valuable component of an integrated weight management program in postmenopausal women. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One segment of the population that is particularly inclined to liver fat accumulation is postmenopausal women. Although nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis is more common in men than in women, after menopause there is a reversal in gender distribution. At the present time, weight loss and exercise are regarded as first line treatments for NAFLD in postmenopausal women, as it is the case for the management of metabolic syndrome. In recent years, there has been substantial evidence coming mostly from the use of the animal model, that indeed estrogens withdrawal is associated with modifications of molecular markers favouring the activity of metabolic pathways ultimately leading to liver fat accumulation. In addition, the use of the animal model has provided physiological and molecular evidence that exercise training provides estrogens-like protective effects on liver fat accumulation and its consequences. The purpose of the present paper is to present information relative to the development of a state of NAFLD resulting from the absence of estrogens and the role of exercise training, emphasizing on the contribution of the animal model on these issues.
Journal of nutrition and metabolism 01/2012; 2012(3):914938. DOI:10.1155/2012/914938
"The Wndings of the present study showing a decrease in body fat mass and an improvement muscle strength with resistance training during weight loss complement previous studies (Henwood and TaaVe 2005; Moss et al. 1997). In an earlier study done by Ryan et al. (Ryan et al. 1995) the eVect of 16 weeks of resistance training combined with weight loss was examined compared to a resistance training-only group of post menopausal women (n = 15). The results showed that resistance training plus weight loss resulted in a signiWcant increase in strength, no change in overall lean mass, and decreases in body weight, fat mass, and % body fat. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of resistance training has not been thoroughly examined in overweight older adults undergoing weight loss. Subjects (n = 27) were overweight and obese (BMI 31.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2)) older (age 67 +/- 4 years) adults and were randomized into either a 10-week Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension for weight loss diet (DASH, n = 12) or DASH plus moderate intensity resistance training (DASH-RT, n = 15). Outcomes included weight loss, total body and mid-thigh composition, muscle and physical function. There were no significant weight loss differences between the DASH-RT and DASH groups (-3.6 +/- 0.8 vs. -2.0 +/- 0.9%, p = 0.137). The DASH-RT group had a greater reduction in body fat than the DASH group (-4.1 +/- 0.9 vs. -0.2 +/- 1.0 kg, p = 0.005). The DASH-RT group had greater changes in lean mass (+0.8 +/- 0.4 vs. -1.4 +/- 0.4 kg, p = 0.002) and strength (+60 +/- 18 vs. -5 +/- 9 N, p = 0.008) than the DASH group. There were favorable changes in mid-thigh composition variables in the DASH-RT group that were different than the lack of changes observed in the DASH group, except for intermuscular adipose tissue. Both groups experienced decreases in 400-m walk times showed (DASH -36 +/- 11 s, DASH-RT -40 +/- 7 s) with no differences between groups. Moderate intensity resistance training during weight loss appears to improve fat mass and thigh composition, but weight loss only does not. However, global measures of physical functioning may improve with a weight loss-only program.
"Resistance training improves the musculoskeletal system, maintains various physical functions and prevents osteoporosis and sarcopenia  . Recently, researchers reported that resistance training may positively affect risk factors such as insulin resistance , resting metabolic rate , glucose metabolism , blood pressure , and body fat , which are associated with diabetes, heart disease , and cancer . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A resistance training protocol of low intensity and short duration allows for increased training frequency and improved compliance. This study aimed to examine the short-term (response of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone after one exercise session) and long-term (change of fitness level and body fat percentage after the exercise period) effects of slow movement resi- stance training using the individual’s body mass (hiroNARI style training) in adult women and to clarify their subjective sense of training contin- uity. Nineteen healthy adult women performed hiroNARI style training three times a week for 12 weeks. This protocol consisted of 12 types of exercise for 7 muscle groups. GH and testos-terone increased significantly after one exercise session (70% and 23.3%, p < 0.05, respectively). Height and the circumferences of the upper arm (flexed), chest, waist, hip, and thigh changed si- gnificantly. Except for the upper arm circumfe- rence, these parameters improved significantly after 6 weeks. There were significant improvem- ents in measurements of physical fitness after 6 weeks including one leg raise with eyes closed, side step, and repeated sit ups for 30 s. After 12 weeks, anteflexion from a long sitting position improved as well. Triglycerides and HDL and LDL cholesterol changed significantly after 12 weeks. In conclusion, resistance training may have po- sitive effects and is associated with high comp- liance. However, it will be necessary to reexam- ine the training protocol for increasing back and lower limb muscle strength and necessary vari- ations to prevent overtraining of certain muscle groups.
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