Impact of reactive oxygen species on spermatozoa: a balancing act between beneficial and detrimental effects. Hum Reprod 10(Suppl 1):15-21

Urology Research Laboratory, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Human Reproduction (Impact Factor: 4.57). 11/1995; 10 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):15-21. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/10.suppl_1.15
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have beneficial or detrimental effects on sperm functions depending on the nature and the concentration of the ROS involved, as well as the moment and the location of exposure. Excessive generation of ROS in semen, mainly by neutrophils but also by abnormal spermatozoa, could be a cause for infertility. Hydrogen peroxide is the primary toxic ROS for human spermatozoa. Low concentrations of this ROS do not affect sperm viability but cause sperm immobilization mostly via depletion of intracellular ATP and the subsequent decrease in the phosphorylation of axonemal proteins. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide induce lipid peroxidation and result in cell death. On the other hand, the superoxide anion appears to play a major role in the development of hyperactivation and capacitation. The observations that: (i) exogenously generated superoxide anions induce hyperactivation and capacitation; (ii) capacitating spermatozoa themselves produce elevated concentrations of superoxide anion over prolonged periods of time; and (iii) removal of this ROS by superoxide dismutase prevents sperm hyperactivation and capacitation induced by various biological fluids, stress the importance of the superoxide anion in these processes.

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    • "induce rapid capacitation processes, which affect homeostatic mechanisms such as phospholipid peroxidation [39], thus, excessive ROS production causes infertility [40]. Magnetized water has stronger electronic donor, hydrogenbond , and electric conduction characteristics, as well as reduced formation of ice-crystals compared with normal water [41] [42]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G+BSA and 6000G+BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H2O2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18°C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G+BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G+BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H2O2 level were significantly lower in the 6000G+BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2015; 46(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.06.159 · 2.30 Impact Factor
    • "Induction in ROS generation has been correlated with a reduction of sperm motility.[2829] The link between ROS and reduced motility may be due to a cascade of events that results in a decrease in axonemal protein phosphorylation and sperm immobilization, both of which are associated with a reduction in membrane fluidity that is necessary for sperm oocyte fusion.[30] The reduction in sperm count may be due to the adverse effect of different doses of deltamethrin on spermatogenesis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, household pest control, protection of foodstuff, and disease vector control. Although initially thought to be least toxic, a number of recent reports showed its toxic effects in mammalian and non-mammalian animal species. The current study was performed to assess the dose-dependent deltamethrin toxicity on testes, liver, and kidney of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided in four groups of 6 each. Group A served as normal control. Group B, C, and D were administered with different doses (2 or 3 or 6 mg/kg corresponding to 1/30th or 1/20th or 1/10th of LD50, respectively) of deltamethrin for 28 days. Results: Deltamethrin exposure caused a significant reduction in weight of reproductive organs, decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), and luteinizing hormones (LH) in testis. Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were decreased in testis, liver and kidney of exposed rats. Deltamethrin exposure significantly increased sperm abnormalities in testis. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in testis, liver and kidney. Deltamethrin also caused histological alterations in testes, liver, and kidney. Conclusions: The results indicated that deltamethrin at a dose of 6 mg/kg exerts significant harmful effects on testes, liver and kidney as compare to 2 mg and 3 mg/kg. The study concluded that the system toxicity induced by deltamethrin was dose dependent.
    Toxicology International 05/2014; 21(2):131-9. DOI:10.4103/0971-6580.139789
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    • "O2 is required to support the life of spermatozoa, but its metabolites, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), have some disadvantages, which include modification of cellular functions and/or threaten cell survival [14]. For this reason, ROS formation must be regulated to sustain only the necessary amount that suitable for maintaining normal cellular function. "
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    ABSTRACT: Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to normal values after treatment with zinc sulfate. Volume of semen, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc supplementation. Treatment of asthenospermic patients with zinc supplementation leads to restored peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity to normal values and gives a statistically significant improvement of semen parameters compared with controls.Trial registration: identifier: NCT01684059.
    Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 01/2014; 12(1):1. DOI:10.1186/1477-7827-12-1 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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