Stimulus specificity of matrix metalloproteinase dependence of human T cell migration through a model basement membrane.
ABSTRACT Chemotaxis of human T lymphoblastoma cells of the Tsup-1 line, which migrate similarly to blood T cells, through a layer of basement membrane-like Matrigel on a polycarbonate micropore filter was evoked by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; concentration for a maximal response, 10(-7)M), IL-2 (10(-9)M), and the chemokines RANTES (10(-10)M) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (10(-10)M). Chemotactic concentrations of each factor increased Tsup-1 cell secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), with significant responses by 4 h for VIP, IL-2, and IL-4, but only after 24 h for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and RANTES, as quantified by Western blots and zymography. 3H-Labeled type IV human collagen incorporated in the Matrigel layer was degraded by migrating Tsup-1 cells, as assessed by release of radioactive fragments of the collagen. The in situ degradation of type IV collagen in Matrigel by migrating Tsup-1 cells was enhanced most significantly by VIP, IL-2, and IL-4 after 4 h at concentrations that increased the secretion of MMP-9 optimally, but only after 24 h by macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and RANTES. The specific MMP inhibitor GM6001 suppressed Tsup-1 cell MMP activity evoked by all stimuli, as determined by zymography and in situ degradation of 3H-Labeled type IV human collagen. The chemotactic migration of Tsup-1 cells through Matrigel, but not through a filter alone, in response to optimal concentrations of VIP, IL-2, and IL-4, but not the chemokines, was inhibited by GM6001, with a concentration dependence similar to that for suppression of MMP activity. Thus elicitation of T cell chemotactic migration through a model basement membrane by stimuli that increase MMP activity early in the response depends on degradation of matrix proteins by MMP, whereas stimuli that recruit MMP late may rely on early activation of other proteases.
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important for the pathogenesis and progression of different tumours. MMPs-2 and -9 are the principal MMPs produced by lymphocytes; these enzymes can degrade a number of matrix proteins but are the two main MMPs that digest type IV collagen, the major component of basement membranes. Therefore, these enzymes are potentially important for tissue invasion and remodelling by malignant lymphocytes. This study showed that chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells produce and secrete variable amounts of pro-MMP-9, but no MMP-2 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1). The pro-enzyme was found in monomeric and dimeric forms and also complexed with lipocalin. Moreover, a small fraction of secreted monomer became associated with the cell surface and activated upon cell adhesion to insolubilized type IV collagen. High levels of intracellular MMP-9 were associated with advanced (stage C) disease and with poor patient survival. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that MMP-9 was associated with areas of tissue invasion and remodelling. The relatively specific MMP-9 inhibitors, Ro31-9790 (3 micromol/l) and TIMP-1, reduced CLL-cell migration through type IV collagen and through endothelial monolayers suggesting that the enzyme may also be important in malignant cell entry and egress to and from involved tissue. Our data raise the possibility that MMP-9 modulation may have therapeutic potential in advanced CLL.British Journal of Haematology 05/2004; 125(2):128-40. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.04877.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in orthopedic prosthesis can be oxidized during sterilization processes such as gamma-ray irradiation. Oxidation alters UHMWPE structure and mechanical properties and it has been suggested that this alteration is the first step in the loosening process. Direct effects of UHMWPE oxidation on the cellular and tissue response to the implant have not been previously investigated. We used heat-oxidized UHMWPE, whose oxidative state is comparable to the one induced in gamma-ray irradiated polymer. in order to observe the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) behavior after 24 and 48 h exposure to the oxidized and non-oxidized polymers. Flow cytometric analysis showed a cytotoxic effect of oxidized UHMWPE after 48 h compared with the control samples. Moreover, gelatin zymography of PBMCs conditioned media showed a strong increase in MMP-9 (gelatinase B) release and activation in oxidized UHMWPE samples. This first evidence of a direct effect of the UHMWPE oxidative status on the cellular behavior suggests that oxidation alters not only the UHMWPE physical-mechanical properties. but it can also be responsible for altered tissue response.Biomaterials 10/2002; 23(17):3645-50. DOI:10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00097-2 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thrombospondin (TSP)-1 has been reported to modulate T cell behavior both positively and negatively. We found that these opposing responses arise from interactions of TSP1 with two different T cell receptors. The integrin alpha4beta1 recognizes an LDVP sequence in the NH2-terminal domain of TSP1 and was required for stimulation of T cell adhesion, chemotaxis, and matrix metalloproteinase gene expression by TSP1. Recognition of TSP1 by T cells depended on the activation state of alpha4beta1 integrin, and TSP1 inhibited interaction of activated alpha4beta1 integrin on T cells with its counter receptor vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. The alpha4beta1 integrin recognition site is conserved in TSP2. A recombinant piece of TSP2 containing this sequence replicated the alpha4beta1 integrin-dependent activities of TSP1. The beta1 integrin recognition sites in TSP1, however, were neither necessary nor sufficient for inhibition of T cell proliferation and T cell antigen receptor signaling by TSP1. A second TSP1 receptor, CD47, was not required for some stimulatory responses to TSP1 but played a significant role in its T cell antigen receptor antagonist and antiproliferative activities. Modulating the relative expression or function of these two TSP receptors could therefore alter the direction or magnitude of T cell responses to TSPs.The Journal of Cell Biology 05/2002; 157(3):509-19. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200109098 · 9.69 Impact Factor