Coordination of three signaling enzymes by AKAP79, a mammalian scaffold protein.
ABSTRACT Multivalent binding proteins, such as the yeast scaffold protein Sterile-5, coordinate the location of kinases by serving as platforms for the assembly of signaling units. Similarly, in mammalian cells the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and phosphatase 2B [calcineurin (CaN)] are complexed by an A kinase anchoring protein, AKAP79. Deletion analysis and binding studies demonstrate that a third enzyme, protein kinase C (PKC), binds AKAP79 at a site distinct from those bound by PKA or CaN. The subcellular distributions of PKC and AKAP79 were similar in neurons. Thus, AKAP79 appears to function as a scaffold protein for three multifunctional enzymes.
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ABSTRACT: Previously, we showed caveolae contain a population of protein kinase C (PKC) that appears to regulate membrane invagination. We now report that multiple PKC isoenzymes are enriched in caveolae of unstimulated fibroblasts. To understand the mecha-nism of PKC targeting, we prepared caveolae lacking PKC and measured the interaction of recombinant PKC with these membranes. PKC bound with high affinity and specificity to caveolae membranes. Binding was calcium dependent, did not require the addition of factors that activate the enzyme, and involved the regu-latory domain of the molecule. A 68-kD PKC -binding protein identified as sdr (serum deprivation response) was isolated by interaction cloning and localized to ca-veolae. Antibodies against sdr inhibited PKC binding. A 100–amino acid sequence from the middle of sdr competitively blocked PKC binding while flanking se-quences were inactive. Caveolae appear to be a mem-brane site where PKC enzymes are organized to carry out essential regulatory functions as well as to modu-late signal transduction at the cell surface.
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ABSTRACT: The NFAT signaling pathway regulates various aspects of cellular functions; NFAT acts as a calcium sensor, integrating calcium signaling with other pathways involved in development and growth, immune response, and inflammatory response. The NFAT family of transcription factors regulates diverse cellular functions such as cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. The NFAT isoforms are constitutively activated and overexpressed in several cancer types wherein they transactivate downstream targets that play important roles in cancer development and progression. Though the NFAT family has been conclusively proved to be pivotal in cancer progression, the different isoforms play distinct roles in different cellular contexts. In this review, our discussion is focused on the mechanisms that drive the activation of various NFAT isoforms in cancer. Additionally, we analyze the potential of NFAT as a valid target for cancer prevention and therapy.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer 07/2014; · 7.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: KCNQ potassium channels composed of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 subunits give rise to the M-current, a slow-activating and non-inactivating voltage-dependent potassium current that limits repetitive firing of action potentials. KCNQ channels are enriched at the surface of axons and axonal initial segments, the sites for action potential generation and modulation. Their enrichment at the axonal surface is impaired by mutations in KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail that cause benign familial neonatal convulsion and myokymia, suggesting that their correct surface distribution and density at the axon is crucial for control of neuronal excitability. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating enrichment of KCNQ channels at the neuronal axon remain elusive. Here, we show that enrichment of KCNQ channels at the axonal surface of dissociated rat hippocampal cultured neurons is regulated by ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin. Using immunocytochemistry and the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) membrane protein as a trafficking reporter, we demonstrate that fusion of KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail is sufficient to target CD4 protein to the axonal surface whereas inhibition of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 abolishes axonal surface expression of CD4 fusion proteins by retaining them in the endoplasmic reticulum. Disruption of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 also impairs enrichment of heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels at the axonal surface by blocking their trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the axon. Consistently, hippocampal neuronal excitability is dampened by transient expression of wild-type KCNQ2 but not mutant KCNQ2 deficient in calmodulin binding. Furthermore, coexpression of mutant calmodulin, which can interact with KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels but not calcium, reduces but does not abolish their enrichment at the axonal surface, suggesting that apo calmodulin but not calcium-bound calmodulin is necessary for their preferential targeting to the axonal surface. These findings collectively reveal calmodulin as a critical player that modulates trafficking and enrichment of KCNQ channels at the neuronal axon.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103655. · 3.53 Impact Factor