In 1987, exploratory clinical studies were initiated to determine whether the development of AIDS in HIV-infected individuals might be delayed or prevented by immunization with an inactivated HIV preparation. Preclinical studies had shown the preparation to be safe and immunogenic. Twenty-three patients with biopsy-confirmed persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (CDC III) and two with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4 lymphocyte counts between 135 and 769/mm3 were studied, of whom eight (32%) had additional HIV-related symptoms. Over a 3-year period, they received a median of eight open-label inoculations of 100 micrograms of inactivated gp 120-depleted HIV-1 Immunogen in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Clinical, general laboratory, immunologic, and virologic parameters were followed for up to 6 years. No serious treatment-related adverse experiences were reported, nor was accelerated HIV disease progression seen. Twelve patients developed a delayed-type hypersensitivity response (HIV-DTH) to the immunogen and nine showed fourfold or greater increases in anti-p24 antibody titers. In the follow-up period, 10 of the 25 patients developed AIDS and one with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) at baseline progressed. Of the 12 patients who became HIV-DTH-responsive, one developed an opportunistic infection (OI), occurring approximately 5 years from study onset, and subsequently died. One additional HIV-DTH responder developed KS. Of the 13 patients who remained HIV-DTH-nonresponsive, nine (69%) progressed to AIDS and seven of these have died. Differences were also observed in terms of HIV-DNA copy number, CD4 percentages, and anti-p24 antibody patterns between the HIV-DTH-responsive and -nonresponsive groups, suggesting a more favorable clinical course in the former. HIV-1 Immunogen in IFA appears to be safe and immunogenic. Further studies are indicated to determine clinical efficacy of the HIV Immunogen as well as the significance of the apparent correlation between HIV-DTH responsivity and a more favorable clinical course.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two trials of subjects inoculated with the inactivated, gp120-depleted HIV-1 Immunogen are reported. In one study, in which 19 subjects received ZDV and 8 subjects received ddI, treatment with the HIV-1 Immunogen did not affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of the antiviral drugs. In another study, 65 subjects who were previously immunized with the HIV-1 Immunogen over a mean period of 4.0 years (range, 1.2-5.4 years) received inoculations at 0 and 6 months. At some point during this 48-week study, 72% of the subjects (47/65) were receiving antiviral drug therapy. The HIV-1 DNA load in CD4 cells and CD4 percentage were found to be stable over the 48-week period. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to HIV-1 antigens increased after two inoculations with the HIV-1 Immunogen. In these two trials, no serious treatment-related adverse events were documented in the subjects. The two studies presented herein are the first to suggest that an immune-based therapy such as the HIV-1 Immunogen can be combined safely with antiviral drugs, supporting further study to evaluate the clinical utility of this approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antigens, microbial recall antigens, and CD3 monoclonal antibody were studied in HIV-1-infected asymptomatic patients in a phase II, double-blind trial of immunization with recombinant HIV-1 gp160 in or not in association with zidovudine. A vigorous and persistent lymphoproliferative response (LPR) to HIV-1 Env antigens was observed in vaccinated patients. Neither Env-specific lymphocyte cytotoxicity nor LPR to recall antigens was significantly influenced by gp160 administration. The induction of LPRs to HIV-1 envelope proteins did not show positive effects on the course of HIV-1 infection. Patients treated with zidovudine alone or in combination with the immunogen showed improvement of T lymphocyte responses and transient reduction of viremia. These results suggest that antiretroviral therapy is more beneficial than immunization with gp160 and should always be considered in association with future vaccination and immunotherapeutic interventions in HIV-1-infected subjects.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/1997; 176(4):904-12. DOI:10.1086/516500 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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