Histopathology of cholestasis.
ABSTRACT Cholestasis may be extrahepatic or intrahepatic in origin. The block in bile secretion may be complete or incomplete to variable extent. Complete cholestasis occurs in case of primary parenchymal disease (intrahepatic cholestasis) or total obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts (extrahepatic cholestasis). Incomplete block in bile secretion is due to incomplete obstruction of intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts (intra- or extrahepatic cholestasis or both). Histologically, it is useful to distinguish between bilirubionstasis and cholate-stasis. Complete secretory block causes as early changers: bilirubinostasis (in hepatocytes, canaliculi and Kupffer cells) in acinar zone 3, and "ductular reaction" in acinar zone 1. The latter refers to an increase in periportal ductular profiles, associated with neutrophil infiltration. With longer duration of cholestasis, further lesions ensue: feathery degeneration of hepatocytes due to retention of detergent bile acids, cholestatic liver cell rosettes representing a shift from hepatocellular to biliary differentiation, xanthomatous cells reflecting hyperlipidemia, cholate stasis in acinar zone 1 due to overload of membrane-damaging bile acids, eventually paraportal bile infarcts, and progressive ductular reaction. The latter may be due to multiplication of pre-existing ductules, to metaplasia of periportal hepatocytes, or to activation of progenitor cells. It is invariably associated with periductular fibrosis: the pacemaker for increasing matrix deposition, resulting in biliary fibrosis and eventually in true biliary cirrhosis. Incomplete cholestasis (e.g. PBC, PSC) is characterized by absence of bilirubinostasis during long periods of time, whereas the afore mentioned features of chronic cholestasis do appear. Hence follows that the most reliable markers of chronic incomplete cholestasis are cholate stasis, cholestatic rosettes and ductular reaction. Bilirubinostasis is only a late and often ominous sign.
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ABSTRACT: There is no histologic classification system to determine prognoses of patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). We identified histologic features associated with disease severity and created a histologic scoring system to predict short-term (90 day) mortality. We analyzed data from 121 patients admitted to the Liver Unit (Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain) from January 2000 through January 2008 with features of AH, and developed a histologic scoring system to determine risk of death using logistic regression. The system was tested and updated in a test set of 96 patients from 5 academic centers in the US and Europe, and a semi-quantitative scoring system was developed, called the alcoholic hepatitis histologic score (AHHS). The system was validated in an independent set of 109 patients. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated by weighted κ statistic analysis. Degree of fibrosis, neutrophil infiltration, type of bilirubinostasis, and presence mega-mitochondria were independently associated with 90 day mortality. We used these 4 parameters to develop the AHHS to identify patients with low (0-3 points), moderate (4-5 points), and high (6-9 points) risks of death within 90 days (3%, 19%, and 51%, respectively; P<.0001). The AHHS estimated 90 day mortality in the training and test sets with an area under the receiver operating characteristic value of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.83). Inter-rate agreement values were 0.65 for fibrosis, 0.86 for bilirubinostasis, 0.60 for neutrophil infiltration, and 0.46 for megamitochondria. Interestingly, the type of bilirubinostasis predicted the development of bacterial infections. We identified histologic features associated with severity of AH and developed a patient classification system that might be used in clinical decision making.Gastroenterology 01/2014; 146(5). DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2014.01.018 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholangiopathy characterized by biliary fibrosis, development of cholestasis and end stage liver disease, high risk of malignancy and frequent need for liver transplantation. The poor understanding of its pathogenesis is also reflected in the lack of effective medical treatment. Well-characterized animal models are utterly needed to develop novel pathogenetic concepts and study new treatment strategies. Currently there is no consensus on how to evaluate and characterize potential PSC models, which makes direct comparison of experimental results and effective exchange of study material between research groups difficult. The International Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Study Group (IPSCSG) has therefore summarized these key issues in a position paper proposing standard requirements for the study of animal models of PSC.Journal of Hepatology 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.02.006 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether protoporphyric liver injury affects hepatic dendritic cells (DC) and Kupffer cells, we examined liver tissues of griseofulvin-induced protoporphyric mice using histological and immunohistochemical methods. After 1 week of griseofulvin feeding, the protoporphyric liver showed prominent hepatomegaly and a gradual in- crease in histopathological changes such as hepatocellular hypertrophy, focal necrosis and brown pigment deposits. After 4 weeks of treatment, marked ductular reaction was observed in the liver tissue. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that the den- sity of NLDC-145-positive hepatic DC gradually decreased during griseofulvin feeding. However, the index of the number of DC in the whole liver appeared to fall sharply after 6 weeks. In contrast, the density of F4/80-positive Kupffer cells gradually increased during griseofulvin feeding. In the spleen and lung, no significant differences were noted in the distribution of NLDC-145-positive DC between experimental and control mice. These results suggested that griseofulvin-induced protoporphyria leads to a specific decrease in the density of hepatic DC due to hepatomegaly until 4 weeks of treatment and is substantial after 6 weeks. This substantial decrease of hepatic DC might have been induced by some alterations in protoporphyric liver injury including ductular reaction at a later stage in this experiment. Since hepatic DC were reduced in number, they seemed to have no significant relation to the progression of griseofulvin- induced protoporphyric liver injury. However, the decrease of hepatic DC might affect the cellular immune response in protoporphyria.