Distribution of biotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.
ABSTRACT Eighty isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from 30 Brazilian periodontitis patients were examined to determine the distribution of biotypes and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Seventy-seven percent of the isolates belonged to biotype X. All A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates were susceptible to cefoxitin, imipenem and tetracycline.
Article: Inhibitory signals mediated by programmed death-1 are involved with T-cell function in chronic periodontitis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inhibitory signals mediated via molecules such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) play a critical role in downmodulating immune responses and maintaining peripheral tolerance. We investigated the involvement of cytokines and PD-1 engagement in mediating the T-cell unresponsiveness to bacterial and ubiquitous antigens in periodontal diseases. Gingival and peripheral blood samples from healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis were collected and used for the subsequent assays. Leukocytes in the lesion site and blood were evaluated using flow cytometry. The production of interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and transforming growth factor-beta proteins was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the presence of PD-1+ cells in the inflamed gingiva was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy for CD4 and PD-1 colocalization. T cells from patients with chronic periodontitis proliferated poorly in response to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) antigen. T-cell unresponsiveness was not associated with imbalanced cytokine production. However, T cells from patients with chronic periodontitis expressed significantly higher levels of PD-1 either upon isolation or after culture with antigens. Moreover, PD-1 blocking did not result in significant T-cell proliferation in cells cultured with phytohemagglutinin or bacterial antigens. The blockade of PD-1 resulted in the increased production of IFN-gamma. In addition, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1 accumulated in lesions with chronic periodontitis. These data show that PD-1 engagement could be involved in the modulation of IFN-gamma production by T cells in patients with chronic periodontitis.Journal of Periodontology 11/2009; 80(11):1833-44. · 2.60 Impact Factor