Primary body cavity-based AIDS-related lymphomas.
ABSTRACT Five patients with advanced AIDS developed a unique type of high grade primary body cavity-based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The lymphomas were exclusively in serous effusions with no detectable mass disease in the body cavities and no lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. All of the lymphomas exhibited virtually identical morphology, which could not be precisely classified, but appeared to bridge features of large cell immunoblastic and anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Immunophenotypically the lymphoma cells lacked expression of any B- or T-lymphocyte antigens, but expressed CD45 and the activation antigens CD30, CD38, CD71, and HLA-DR. Clonally rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain and kappa light chain genes were identified by Southern blot analysis. Molecular studies also revealed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genomes and germline configuration of the c-myc protooncogene. In two cases studied cytogenetically, the lymphoma cells manifested complex chromosome abnormalities. These lymphomas are clinically and biologically unique and found predominantly in patients with advanced AIDS, in many cases with pre-existing Kaposi's sarcoma.
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ABSTRACT: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that usually presents with malignant effusions without tumor masses. An extracavitary or solid variant of PEL has also been described. Human herpes virus 8/Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (HHV-8/KSHV) is universally associated with the pathogenesis of PEL. More than 70% of cases occur with concurrent Epstein-Barr virus infection, but its relation to the pathogenesis is unknown. Patients are found in the context of immunosuppressive states (HIV-1 infection, post-organ transplantation). PEL is usually treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-like chemotherapy with antiretroviral therapy if HIV-1 is positive. However, it is generally resistant to chemotherapy with a short median survival of less than 6 months. The optimal treatment for PEL has not been established yet. More intensive chemotherapy, such as dose-adjusted EPOCH (DA-EPOCH; etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin) and CDE (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, etoposide) are expected to show a favorable prognosis. Recently, the molecular steps in KSHV/HHV-8-driven oncogenesis have begun to be revealed, and molecular targeting therapies such as proteasome, NF-κB, cytokines and surface antigens would provide evidence for their clinical use.08/2014; 3(3):65-74. DOI:10.5582/irdr.2014.01010
Article: CD30 in Systemic Mastocytosis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CD30 is a transmembrane receptor, normally not expressed by mast cells, which regulates proliferation/apoptosis and antibody responses. Aberrant expression of CD30 by mastocytosis mast cells and interaction with its ligand CD30L (CD153) appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of systemic mastocytosis. This article highlights the expression profile and role of CD30 and CD30L in physiologic and pathologic conditions, the applicability of CD30 as a marker for systemic mastocytosis, the consequences of mast cell-expressed CD30, and the possibility of future anti-CD30 based cytoreductive therapies.Immunology and allergy clinics of North America 05/2014; 34(2):341-355. DOI:10.1016/j.iac.2014.01.006 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a human herpes virus 8 (HHV8)-positive large B-cell neoplasm that presents as an effusion with no detectable tumor in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection or other immune deficiencies. PEL is an aggressive neoplasm with a poor prognosis. PEL cells show diverse morphologies, ranging from immunoblastic or plasmablastic to anaplastic. The immunophenotype of PEL is distinct, but its lineage can be misdiagnosed if not assessed thoroughly. PEL cells usually express CD45, lack B- and T-cell-associated antigens, and characteristically express lymphocyte activation antigens and plasma cell-associated antigens. Diagnosis of PEL often requires the demonstration of a B-cell genotype. HHV8 must be detected in cells to diagnose PEL. In most cases, PEL cells also harbor the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Similar conditions associated with HHV8 but not effusion-based are called "extracavitary PELs." PELs should be differentiated from HHV8-negative, EBV-positive, body cavity-based lymphomas in patients with long-standing chronic inflammation; the latter can occur in tuberculous pleuritis, artificial pneumothorax, chronic liver disease and various other conditions. Despite their morphological similarity, these various lymphomas require different therapeutic strategies and have different prognostic implications. Correct diagnosis is essential to manage and predict the outcome of patients with PEL and related disorders.The Korean Journal of Pathology 04/2014; 48(2):81-90. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.2.81 · 0.17 Impact Factor