Article

Application of a bromodeoxyuridine-Hoechst/ethidium bromide technique for the analysis of radiation-induced cell cycle delays in asynchronous cell populations.

Meyerstein Institute of Oncology, The Middlesex Hospital, London, UK.
International Journal of Radiation Biology (Impact Factor: 1.84). 03/1996; 69(2):251-7. DOI: 10.1080/095530096146093
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A flow cytometric technique utilizing the continuous incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into asynchronous cells to measure radiation-induced cell cycle delay is described. Following the incorporation of the BrdU label the cells are stained with ethidium bromide and the bis-benzimidazole Hoechst 33258. These fluorochromes have differential staining patterns. Hoechst 33258 fluoresces blue and is quenched by BrdU incorporated into cellular DNA during S phase. Ethidium bromide fluoresces red and is not quenched by BrdU. Therefore in cells that are cycling and synthesizing DNA new G1 and G2 compartments are created and this can be used to measure cell cycle delays following ionizing radiation to asynchronous cells. We have used this technique to evaluate two cell lines: a normal diploid human embryo fibroblast cell line MRC 5, which has inducible p53 and shows delays at both G1 and G2 checkpoints, and the human cervix carcinoma cell line HX 156. This cell line has been infected with human papilloma virus (HPV) 16, and therefore has inactivated p53 function and is blocked only at the G2 checkpoint. Using this method, cell cycle-dependent effects relating to the G2 block can be observed. The radiation-induced G2 block differs from that induced by drugs or heating in that cells are blocked in G2 irrespective of the phase of the cell cycle they are treated in. This method allows these different types of G2 block to be quantified.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
129 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have investigated whether the protective role of the G2 checkpoint has increasing importance when the p53-dependent G1 checkpoint is inactivated. We have studied the differential effect of caffeine by clonogenic assays and flow cytometry in three human tumour cell lines with different functionality of p53 protein. The radiosensitizing effect of caffeine (2 mM) expressed itself as a significant decrease in surviving fraction at 2 Gy and a significant increase in alpha-values in RT112 and TE671, both with non-functional p53. However, no radiosensitizing effect was seen in cells with a normal p53 function (MCF-7 BUS). Two millimoles of caffeine also caused important changes in the cell cycle progression after irradiation. MCF-7 BUS showed a G1 arrest after irradiation and an early G2 arrest but those cells that reached the second G2 did not arrest significantly. In contrast, TE671 exhibited radiosensitization by caffeine, no G1 arrest, a G2 arrest in those cells irradiated in G2, no significant accumulation in the second G2 but an overall delay in release from the first cell cycle, which could be abrogated by caffeine. RT112 was similar to TE671 except that the emphasis in a G2 arrest was shifted from the block in cells irradiated in G2 to those irradiated at other cell cycle phases. The data presented confirm that p53 status can be a significant determinant of the efficacy of caffeine as radiosensitizer in these tumour cell lines, and document the importance of the G2 checkpoint in this effect.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 04/2000; 54(3):261-71. · 4.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: We have investigated whether the protective role of the G2 checkpoint has increasing importance when the p53-dependent G1 checkpoint is inactivated.Materials and methods: We have studied the differential effect of caffeine by clonogenic assays and flow cytometry in three human tumour cell lines with different functionality of p53 protein.Results: The radiosensitizing effect of caffeine (2 mM) expressed itself as a significant decrease in surviving fraction at 2 Gy and a significant increase in α-values in RT112 and TE671, both with non-functional p53. However, no radiosensitizing effect was seen in cells with a normal p53 function (MCF-7 BUS). Two millimoles of caffeine also caused important changes in the cell cycle progression after irradiation. MCF-7 BUS showed a G1 arrest after irradiation and an early G2 arrest but those cells that reached the second G2 did not arrest significantly. In contrast, TE671 exhibited radiosensitization by caffeine, no G1 arrest, a G2 arrest in those cells irradiated in G2, no significant accumulation in the second G2 but an overall delay in release from the first cell cycle, which could be abrogated by caffeine. RT112 was similar to TE671 except that the emphasis in a G2 arrest was shifted from the block in cells irradiated in G2 to those irradiated at other cell cycle phases.Conclusion: The data presented confirm that p53 status can be a significant determinant of the efficacy of caffeine as radiosensitizer in these tumour cell lines, and document the importance of the G2 checkpoint in this effect.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology - RADIOTHER ONCOL. 01/2000; 54(3):261-271.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activation of p53 has been causally linked to normal tissue damage after irradiation. Pifithrin-α (PFT-α), a specific inhibitor of p53, has been suggested as a combinatory agent in the treatment of p53-deficient tumors in which inhibition of p53 would not compromise therapeutic efficacy but would decrease p53-mediated side effects in normal tissue. We tested this concept for radiotherapy of p53-deficient and -proficient glioma. We observed significant interaction of PFT-α with radiation-induced G(1) checkpoint activation and plating efficiency only in glioma cells expressing at least one wild-type allele of p53. This interaction was correlated with PFT-α-mediated inhibition of radiation-induced expression of the p53 target gene p21(Waf1). Despite inhibition of p53 function we did not observe significant changes in radiosensitivity after treatment with PFT-α in either p53-deficient or p53-proficient tumor cells. We confirmed these results in p53-proficient lung cancer cells. In contrast, PFT-α significantly increased the fraction of normal astrocytes and fibroblasts surviving irradiation; this was accompanied by improved DNA damage repair, speaking against an accumulation of cells with genetic lesions after PFT-α treatment. In conclusion, PFT-α might prove useful in protecting normal tissue from the side effects of radiotherapy without reducing the efficacy of treatment for both p53-proficient and -deficient tumors.
    Radiation Research 11/2010; 174(5):601-10. · 2.70 Impact Factor