Most blood crossmatched in a hospital blood bank is for surgical patients, and the majority is never transfused. The maximal standard blood order schedule is used to promote efficient ordering practices for surgical patients. STUDY DESIGN and
To ascertain the predictors of red cell transfusions for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, the charts of 299 adult patients undergoing primary and revision total hip arthroplasty were reviewed. A surgical blood order equation was developed for calculating the number of units of red cells that should be ordered. Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine which patient-and-case-related variables should be considered in the surgical blood order equation.
The significant indicators for allogeneic red cell transfusion to patients on the day of total hip arthroplasty were preoperative hemoglobin concentration, weight, age, estimated blood loss, and aspirin use. The surgical blood order equation would result in a lower crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio than would the maximal standard blood order schedule (1.23 vs. 3.14). Costs were also lower with the surgical blood order equation.
Incorporation of patient factors resulted in increased efficiency of blood-ordering practices in total hip arthroplasty.
"As for THA and THA-R, these groups had the highest percentage of patients requiring a transfusion (53% and 60%, resp.) and required the most units of blood (154 units and 124 units, resp.), but only 29% and 11% provided an autologous donation, respectively. Inconsistency in choosing appropriate patients for pre-donation is not limited to our study; similar difficulty has been documented in other studies   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The utilization of autologous and allogeneic transfusions in total joint arthroplasties was to characterize patients who may benefit from giving preoperative blood donations. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 525 patients to document preoperative hematocrit, estimated blood loss, length of stay, transfusions, and medical comorbidities. Results of our review showed that total hip arthroplasty revision (THA-R) had the highest prevalence of transfusions (60%) followed by total hip arthroplasty (THA, 53%), total knee arthroplasty-revision (TKA-R, 33%), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA, 23%). There was significant waste of autologous donations: 92% of TKA patients, 64% of THA, and 33% of THA-R patients wasted on average 1.527, 1.321, and 1.5 autologous units, respectively. Pre-operative hematocrit was the strongest predictor of future transfusion need across all procedures, and primary THA had additional predictors in age and gender.
"This question may need to be investigated in a larger sample. Additionally, due to age-related decline in kidney function, higher concentrations of free salicylate can lead to increased risk of bleeding [15,16]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hip fracture is associated with high mortality. Cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities requiring long-term anticoagulant medication are common in these mostly elderly patients. The objective of our observational cohort study of patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture was to study the association between preoperative use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LdAA) and intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion and first-year all-cause mortality.
An observational cohort study was conducted on patients with hip fracture (cervical requiring hemiarthroplasty or pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric requiring internal fixation) participating in a randomized trial that found lack of efficacy of a compression bandage in reducing postoperative bleeding. The participants were 255 patients (≥50 years) of whom 118 (46%) were using LdAA (defined as ≤320 mg daily) preoperatively. Bleeding variables in patients with and without LdAA treatment at time of fracture were measured and blood transfusions given were compared using logistic regression. The association between first-year mortality and preoperative use of LdAA was analyzed with Cox regression adjusting for age, sex, type of fracture, baseline renal dysfunction and baseline cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular disease.
Blood transfusions were given postoperatively to 74 (62.7%) LdAA-treated and 76 (54%) non-treated patients; the adjusted odds ratio was 1.8 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.3). First-year mortality was significantly higher in LdAA-treated patients; the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 2.35 (95% CI 1.23 to 4.49). The mortality was also higher with baseline cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular disease, adjusted HR 2.78 (95% CI 1.31 to 5.88). Patients treated with LdAA preoperatively were significantly more likely to suffer thromboembolic events (5.7% vs. 0.7%, P = 0.03).
In patients with hip fracture (cervical treated with hemiarthroplasty or pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric treated with internal fixation) preoperative use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid was associated with significantly increased need for postoperative blood transfusions and significantly higher all-cause mortality during one year after surgery.
"Increasing age was associated with higher levels of transfusion. These findings support previous studies that identified age as a significant predictive factor for transfusion in patients undergoing elective THA [6, 11, 12]. The increased transfusion levels in older patients was likely to be related to their lower preoperative hemoglobin concentrations, as after adjustment for confounders, only preoperative hemoglobin concentration and blood loss remained significant for transfusion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Revision total hip replacement (THR) is associated with increased blood loss and extended hospitalization.
We reviewed 146 patients who underwent revision THR to identify predictors of blood loss, transfusion requirements, and length of hospitalization.
Blood loss was greater with increasing age and in men. Femoral and dual-component revision and revision of cemented hip components were also associated with greater blood loss. Transfusion requirements were greater in patients who had lower preoperative hemoglobin concentration and in patients undergoing dual-component revision. Length of hospitalization was significantly increased in patients who received transfusion but less in patients who underwent isolated acetabular-component hip revision.
This study shows significantly greater blood loss in men, older patients, revision surgery of cemented implants, and dual-component revisions. More complex revision surgery and preoperative anemia are clearly associated with increased transfusion requirements and length of hospitalization. Identification and treatment of patients at higher risk of transfusion may guide likely transfusion requirements, shorten the length of hospitalization, and reduce the overall cost of treatment.
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology 09/2010; 11(3):159-65. DOI:10.1007/s10195-010-0105-z
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