Canine blood groups and their importance in veterinary transfusion medicine.
ABSTRACT Over 13 canine blood groups have been described. Eight DEA types are recognized as international standards. Typing sera produced by canine alloimmunization exists for six DEA types: 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. Naturally occurring antibody is found against DEA 3, 5, and 7. DEA 1.1 and 1.2 antibody-antigen interactions result in acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. DEA 3, 5, and 7 antibody-antigen interaction in vivo results in permanent red blood cell sequestration and loss in 3 to 5 days. DEA 4 antibody-antigen interactions produce no effect on red blood cell survival in vivo. A dog possessing DEA 4 and no other antigen is considered a "universal" donors. Veterinary transfusion medicine has advanced beyond uncrossmatched, untyped red blood cell transfusion. Whenever possible, transfusion should be between typed and crossmatched individuals. "Universal" donors and crossmatch should be utilized when typing of the recipient is not feasible. Canine blood typing is routinely performed in service laboratories across North America. In-clinic assays are not available for all canine blood group antigens. Recent production of monoclonal antibodies will lead to biochemical definition of the canine blood groups DEA 1.1 and 3. Additional efforts to define the erythrocytes on a molecular level are underway. Advances efforts in this areal will allow for more rapid and uniform testing of the canine red blood cell. Future exploration of DEA type and disease association is needed. A known association exists between DEA 1.1 and neonatal isoerythrolysis. Further screening of the dog population for DEA type may yield markers for autoimmune and neoplastic disease.
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ABSTRACT: To compare accuracy and ease of use of a card agglutination assay, an immunochromatographic cartridge method, and a gel-based method for canine blood typing. Blood samples from 52 healthy blood donor dogs, 10 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and 29 dogs with other diseases. Blood samples were tested in accordance with manufacturer guidelines. Samples with low PCVs were created by the addition of autologous plasma to separately assess the effects of anemia on test results. Compared with a composite reference standard of agreement between 2 methods, the gel-based method was found to be 100% accurate. The card agglutination assay was 89% to 91% accurate, depending on test interpretation, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method was 93% accurate but 100% specific. Errors were observed more frequently in samples from diseased dogs, particularly those with IMHA. In the presence of persistent autoagglutination, dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 typing was not possible, except with the immunochromatographic cartridge method. The card agglutination assay and immunochromatographic cartridge method, performed by trained personnel, were suitable for in-clinic emergency DEA 1.1 blood typing. There may be errors, particularly for samples from dogs with IMHA, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method may have an advantage of allowing typing of samples with persistent autoagglutination. The laboratory gel-based method would be preferred for routine DEA 1.1 typing of donors and patients if it is available and time permits. Current DEA 1.1 typing techniques appear to be appropriately standardized and easy to use.American Journal of Veterinary Research 02/2012; 73(2):213-9. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In human medicine, transfusion of ABO-mismatched platelets has been associated with shortened platelet survival and refractoriness to platelet transfusion because of expression of certain blood group antigens on platelets. It remains unknown if canine platelets express dog erythrocyte antigens (DEAs). The aim of this study was to develop a flow cytometric assay for DEA 1.1 and determine whether DEA 1.1 is present on canine platelets. Blood was collected from 172 clinically healthy dogs. Platelets and erythrocytes from each dog were tested for DEA 1.1 by flow cytometry using anti-DEA 1.1 blood-typing sera. Erythrocytes from each dog were also assessed for DEA 1.1 using a standard tube-typing test (T1) and using a second tube method (T2), if the flow cytometric and T1 results differed. Using flow cytometry, DEA 1.1 was detected on erythrocytes of all 110 dogs shown by T1 or T2 testing to be DEA 1.1-positive. Initial results of the T1 test had a diagnostic accuracy of 93% (160 correct/172 tests). The frequency of erythrocyte DEA 1.1 positivity in previously untyped dogs (n = 118) was 56%. DEA 1.1 expression was not detected on platelets from DEA 1.1-positive dogs. Flow cytometry was a reliable method for detection of DEA 1.1 on canine erythrocytes. The absence of DEA 1.1 on platelets from DEA 1.1-positive dogs suggests that their platelets do not express DEA 1.1 and will not induce production of anti-DEA 1.1 antibodies that might lead to platelet refractoriness or reactions to a subsequent transfusion of DEA 1.1-positive erythrocytes.Veterinary Clinical Pathology 12/2011; 40(4):435-43. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 is the most important RBC antigen clinically, as it is highly immunogenic and causes acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR) in sensitized dogs. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of DEA 1.1 expression in 4 Turkish dog breeds, and to estimate the potential risk of HTR when blood from a DEA 1.1-positive donor is administered to a DEA 1.1-negative recipient following sensitization by a prior mismatched transfusion. EDTA blood samples (n = 178) were typed for DEA 1.1 using a commercial gel-column agglutination test (ID-Gel-Test Canine DEA 1.1). Probabilities of sensitization and risk of an HTR were calculated. The frequency of positivity for DEA 1.1 among Kars (n = 59), Kangal (n = 53), Akbash (n = 50), and Catalburun (n = 16) breeds was 71.2%, 67.9%, 60.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. Potential risk for occurrence of an HTR after administration of blood from a dog of the same breed ranged from 12.5% to 14.8%, whereas HTR induced by blood of a dog from a different breed ranged from 7.2% to 25.3%. The frequency of DEA 1.1-positive dogs among 4 Turkish breeds is high compared with that of most other breeds previously surveyed. The predicted risk of both sensitization and occurrence of DEA 1.1-related HTR following transfusion between dogs of either the same or different Turkish breeds was considerable. Although few dogs are transfused ≥4 days after the first transfusion, we recommend that (1) all donors and recipients be typed for DEA 1.1, (2) DEA 1.1-negative recipients receive only DEA 1.1-negative blood, and (3) blood be cross-matched prior to transfusing any dog ≥4 days after the first transfusion. These guidelines are also applicable to other breeds and countries.Veterinary Clinical Pathology 12/2011; 40(4):518-23. · 1.29 Impact Factor