Canine blood groups and their importance in veterinary transfusion medicine.

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice (Impact Factor: 1.04). 12/1995; 25(6):1323-32.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Over 13 canine blood groups have been described. Eight DEA types are recognized as international standards. Typing sera produced by canine alloimmunization exists for six DEA types: 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. Naturally occurring antibody is found against DEA 3, 5, and 7. DEA 1.1 and 1.2 antibody-antigen interactions result in acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. DEA 3, 5, and 7 antibody-antigen interaction in vivo results in permanent red blood cell sequestration and loss in 3 to 5 days. DEA 4 antibody-antigen interactions produce no effect on red blood cell survival in vivo. A dog possessing DEA 4 and no other antigen is considered a "universal" donors. Veterinary transfusion medicine has advanced beyond uncrossmatched, untyped red blood cell transfusion. Whenever possible, transfusion should be between typed and crossmatched individuals. "Universal" donors and crossmatch should be utilized when typing of the recipient is not feasible. Canine blood typing is routinely performed in service laboratories across North America. In-clinic assays are not available for all canine blood group antigens. Recent production of monoclonal antibodies will lead to biochemical definition of the canine blood groups DEA 1.1 and 3. Additional efforts to define the erythrocytes on a molecular level are underway. Advances efforts in this areal will allow for more rapid and uniform testing of the canine red blood cell. Future exploration of DEA type and disease association is needed. A known association exists between DEA 1.1 and neonatal isoerythrolysis. Further screening of the dog population for DEA type may yield markers for autoimmune and neoplastic disease.

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    ABSTRACT: Blood types were determined using SHIGETA (n=136) and DEA1.1 (n=25) kits, in two groups of dogs, consisting of patients that underwent blood transfusions andhealthy donors. The tests were conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the manufacturers, using specific monoclonal antibodies kits, heparinized blood for the tube agglutination (TUBE) and slide (SLIDE) methods, and EDTA treated blood for the CARD and chromatographic (CHROM) methods. The clear expression of tube agglutination reaction in the SHIGETA kit provided a good detection of antigens. Positive reactions with anti-DEA1.1 were clear and evident with the CHROM test. SHIGETA tests revealed a predominance 1.1B (47.05%) of blood type, common in Rotweilers (81.81%) and Romanian Shepherds (73.68%) and group 1(-)B (24.26%), frequently found in German Shepherds (54.16%), these also representing an important source of compatible blood. DEA1.1 type test, revealed a high frequency of positive dogs (75%), associated with lower number of potential donors. Extrapolation of SHIGETA groups into the DEA system, confirmed the 1(-)B positive dogs as DEA 1.1 negative, and their prevalence in German Shepherds also confirmed their known tendency to be “ideal donors”. The CHROME test showed a good efficiency in auto agglutination control and detecting DEA1.1 positive dogs, including patients with severe forms of anemia.
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    ABSTRACT: The Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 blood group system was thought to contain types DEA 1.1 and 1.2 (and possibly 1.3 [A3 ]). However, DEA 1.2+ dogs are very rare and newer typing methods reveal varying degrees of DEA 1 positivity. To assess if variation in DEA 1 positivity is because of quantitative differences in surface antigen expression. To determine expression patterns in dogs over time and effects of blood storage (4°C). To evaluate DEA 1.2+ samples by DEA 1 typing methods. Anticoagulated blood samples from 66 dogs in a research colony and from a hospital, and 9 previously typed DEA 1.2+ dogs from an animal blood bank. Research study: Samples were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunochromatographic strip using a monoclonal anti-DEA 1 antibody. Twenty dogs were DEA 1-, whereas 46 dogs were weakly to strongly DEA 1+. Antigen quantification revealed excellent correlation between strip and flow cytometry (r = 0.929). Both methods reclassified DEA 1.2+ samples as weakly to moderately DEA 1+, but they were not retyped with the polyclonal anti-DEA 1.1/1.X antibodies. Dogs and blood samples retained their relative DEA 1 antigen densities over time. The blood group system DEA 1 is a continuum from negative to strongly positive antigen expression. Previously typed DEA 1.2+ appears to be DEA 1+. These findings further the understanding of the DEA 1 system and suggest that all alleles within the DEA 1 system have a similarly based epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives – To review the principles and available technology for pretransfusion testing in veterinary medicine and discuss the indications and importance of test performance before RBC transfusion.Data Sources – Current human and veterinary medical literature: original research articles and scientific reviews.Summary – Indications for RBC transfusion in veterinary medicine include severe anemia or tissue hypoxia resulting from blood loss, decreased erythrocyte production, and hemolyzing conditions such as immune-mediated anemia and neonatal isoerythrolysis. Proper blood sample collection, handling, and identification are imperative for high-quality pretransfusion testing. Point-of-care blood typing methods including both typing cards and rapid gel agglutination are readily available for some species. Following blood typing, crossmatching is performed on one or more donor units of appropriate blood type. As an alternative to technically demanding tube crossmatching methods, a point-of-care gel agglutination method has recently become available for use in dogs and cats. Crossmatching reduces the risk of hemolytic transfusion reactions but does not completely eliminate the risk of other types of transfusion reactions in veterinary patients, and for this reason, all transfusion reactions should be appropriately documented and investigated.Conclusion – The administration of blood products is a resource-intensive function of veterinary medicine and optimizing patient safety in transfusion medicine is multifaceted. Adverse reactions can be life threatening. Appropriate donor screening and collection combined with pretransfusion testing decreases the occurrence of incompatible transfusion reactions.
    Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 01/2009; 19(1):66 - 73.