Canine Blood Groups and their Importance in Veterinary Transfusion Medicine
ABSTRACT Over 13 canine blood groups have been described. Eight DEA types are recognized as international standards. Typing sera produced by canine alloimmunization exists for six DEA types: 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. Naturally occurring antibody is found against DEA 3, 5, and 7. DEA 1.1 and 1.2 antibody-antigen interactions result in acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. DEA 3, 5, and 7 antibody-antigen interaction in vivo results in permanent red blood cell sequestration and loss in 3 to 5 days. DEA 4 antibody-antigen interactions produce no effect on red blood cell survival in vivo. A dog possessing DEA 4 and no other antigen is considered a "universal" donors. Veterinary transfusion medicine has advanced beyond uncrossmatched, untyped red blood cell transfusion. Whenever possible, transfusion should be between typed and crossmatched individuals. "Universal" donors and crossmatch should be utilized when typing of the recipient is not feasible. Canine blood typing is routinely performed in service laboratories across North America. In-clinic assays are not available for all canine blood group antigens. Recent production of monoclonal antibodies will lead to biochemical definition of the canine blood groups DEA 1.1 and 3. Additional efforts to define the erythrocytes on a molecular level are underway. Advances efforts in this areal will allow for more rapid and uniform testing of the canine red blood cell. Future exploration of DEA type and disease association is needed. A known association exists between DEA 1.1 and neonatal isoerythrolysis. Further screening of the dog population for DEA type may yield markers for autoimmune and neoplastic disease.
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ABSTRACT: Blood types were determined using SHIGETA (n=136) and DEA1.1 (n=25) kits, in two groups of dogs, consisting of patients that underwent blood transfusions andhealthy donors. The tests were conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the manufacturers, using specific monoclonal antibodies kits, heparinized blood for the tube agglutination (TUBE) and slide (SLIDE) methods, and EDTA treated blood for the CARD and chromatographic (CHROM) methods. The clear expression of tube agglutination reaction in the SHIGETA kit provided a good detection of antigens. Positive reactions with anti-DEA1.1 were clear and evident with the CHROM test. SHIGETA tests revealed a predominance 1.1B (47.05%) of blood type, common in Rotweilers (81.81%) and Romanian Shepherds (73.68%) and group 1(-)B (24.26%), frequently found in German Shepherds (54.16%), these also representing an important source of compatible blood. DEA1.1 type test, revealed a high frequency of positive dogs (75%), associated with lower number of potential donors. Extrapolation of SHIGETA groups into the DEA system, confirmed the 1(-)B positive dogs as DEA 1.1 negative, and their prevalence in German Shepherds also confirmed their known tendency to be “ideal donors”. The CHROME test showed a good efficiency in auto agglutination control and detecting DEA1.1 positive dogs, including patients with severe forms of anemia.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the clinical significance of the canine blood group antigens, relatively little is known of the biochemistry of these molecules. In this study the canine blood group antigens DEA (dog erythrocyte antigen) 1.2, 4 and 7 were immunoprecipitated from red blood cells (RBC) bearing the corresponding blood group, and molecular weights of 85 kD (DEA 1.2), 32-40 kD (DEA 4) and 53-66 kD (DEA 7) assigned. DEA 1.2 and DEA 4 each appeared as a single band, whereas DEA 7 comprised three distinct bands (53, 58 and 66 kD). Polyclonal antisera specific for two peptides derived from the sequence of the human Rhesus blood group (Rh30A-C and Rh50A-C) were used in western blotting against canine and human erythrocyte membranes. The Rh30A-C antiserum identified a band of molecular weight 32 kD in both human and canine RBC, and the antiserum specific for Rh50A-C identified a band of 38-60 kD in human membranes and of 40-53 kD in canine RBC. This finding is consistent with conservation of areas of the Rhesus protein sequence between human and canine erythrocytes.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12/1997; 59(3-4):213-23. DOI:10.1016/S0165-2427(97)00080-9 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In human medicine, transfusion of ABO-mismatched platelets has been associated with shortened platelet survival and refractoriness to platelet transfusion because of expression of certain blood group antigens on platelets. It remains unknown if canine platelets express dog erythrocyte antigens (DEAs). The aim of this study was to develop a flow cytometric assay for DEA 1.1 and determine whether DEA 1.1 is present on canine platelets. Blood was collected from 172 clinically healthy dogs. Platelets and erythrocytes from each dog were tested for DEA 1.1 by flow cytometry using anti-DEA 1.1 blood-typing sera. Erythrocytes from each dog were also assessed for DEA 1.1 using a standard tube-typing test (T1) and using a second tube method (T2), if the flow cytometric and T1 results differed. Using flow cytometry, DEA 1.1 was detected on erythrocytes of all 110 dogs shown by T1 or T2 testing to be DEA 1.1-positive. Initial results of the T1 test had a diagnostic accuracy of 93% (160 correct/172 tests). The frequency of erythrocyte DEA 1.1 positivity in previously untyped dogs (n = 118) was 56%. DEA 1.1 expression was not detected on platelets from DEA 1.1-positive dogs. Flow cytometry was a reliable method for detection of DEA 1.1 on canine erythrocytes. The absence of DEA 1.1 on platelets from DEA 1.1-positive dogs suggests that their platelets do not express DEA 1.1 and will not induce production of anti-DEA 1.1 antibodies that might lead to platelet refractoriness or reactions to a subsequent transfusion of DEA 1.1-positive erythrocytes.Veterinary Clinical Pathology 12/2011; 40(4):435-43. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00374.x · 1.21 Impact Factor