Juvenile limb-girdle muscular dystrophy Clinical, histopathological and genetic data from a small community living in the Reunion Island

INSERM U153, Paris, France.
Brain (Impact Factor: 10.23). 03/1996; 119 ( Pt 1):295-308. DOI: 10.1093/brain/119.1.295
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A series of patients affected by a muscular dystrophy, similar to the original description of a juvenile scapulo-humeral form by Erb in 1884 and fitting with the criteria used to define limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, was discovered in a small community living in the southern part of Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean. A detailed clinical analysis was conducted over 5 years on a cohort of 20 patients. This community presented a high degree of consanguinity as it was segregated from the majority of the island population for more than a century. In previous molecular genetic studies, the disease locus has been mapped to chromosome 15p. Mutations were recently identified in a gene located in this region encoding for muscle-specific calcium activated neutral protease (CANP3). Clinical, pathological, genetic and complete identification of the mutations are presented here, establishing, for the first time, precise clinico-genetic correlations in this form of autosomal recessive, juvenile, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD).

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    ABSTRACT: Calpain 3 is a member of the calpain family of calcium-dependent intracellular proteases. Thirteen years ago it was discovered that mutations in calpain 3 (CAPN3) result in an autosomal recessive and progressive form of limb girdle muscular dystrophy called limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. While calpain 3 mRNA is expressed at high levels in muscle and appears to have some role in developmental processes, muscles of patients and mice lacking calpain 3 still form apparently normal muscle during prenatal development; thus, a functional calpain 3 protease is not mandatory for muscle to form in vivo but it is a pre-requisite for muscle to remain healthy. Despite intensive research in this field, the physiological substrates of the calpain 3 protein (hereafter referred to as CAPN3) and its alternatively spliced isoforms remain elusive. The existence of these multiple isoforms complicates the search for the physiological functions of CAPN3 and its pathophysiological role. In this review, we summarize the genetic and biochemical evidence that point to loss of function of the full-length isoform of CAPN3, also known as p94, as the pathogenic isoform. We also argue that its natural substrates must reside in its proximity within the sarcomere where it is stored in an inactive state anchored to titin. We further propose that CAPN3 has many attributes that make it ideally suited as a sensor of sarcomeric integrity and function, involved in its repair and maintenance. Loss of these CAPN3-mediated activities can explain the "progressive" development of muscular dystrophy.
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP) have recently been demonstrated to cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I), one of the most common forms of the autosomal recessive LGMDs in Europe. We performed a systematic clinical and muscle MRI assessment in 6 LGMD2I patients and compared these findings with those of 14 patients with genetically confirmed diagnosis of other forms of autosomal recessive LGMDs or dystrophinopathies. All LGMD2I patients had a characteristic clinical phenotype with predominant weakness of hip flexion and adduction, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion. These findings were also mirrored on MRI of the lower extremities which demonstrated marked signal changes in the adductor muscles, the posterior thigh and posterior calf muscles. This characteristic clinical and MRI phenotype was also seen in LGMD2A. However, in LGMD2A there was a selective involvement of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscle in the lower legs which was not seen in LGMD2I. The pattern in LGMD2A and LGMD2I were clearly different from the one seen in alpha-sarcoglycanopathy and dystrophinopathy type Becker which showed marked signal abnormalities in the anterior thigh muscles. Our results indicate that muscular MRI is a powerful tool for differentiating LGMD2I from other forms of autosomal recessive LGMDs and dystrophinopathies.
    Journal of Neurology 06/2005; 252(5):538-47. DOI:10.1007/s00415-005-0684-4 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present here the clinical, molecular and biochemical findings from 238 limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) patients, representing approximately 50% (238 out of 484) of the suspected calpainopathy cases referred for the molecular study of the calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene. The mean age at onset of LGMD2A patients was approximately 14 years, and the first symptoms occurred between 6 and 18 years of age in 71% of patients. The mean age at which the patients became wheelchair bound was 32.2 years, with 84% requiring the use of a wheelchair between the age of 21 and 40 years. There was no correlation between the age at onset and the time at which the patient became wheelchair bound, nor between the sex of the patient and the risk of becoming wheelchair bound. Of the cases where the CAPN3 gene was not affected, approximately 20% were diagnosed as LGMD2I muscular dystrophy, while facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) was uncommon in this sample. We identified 105 different mutations in the CAPN3 gene of which 50 have not been described previously. These were distributed throughout the coding region of the gene, although some exons remained free of mutations. The most frequent mutation was 2362AG-->TCATCT (exon 22), which was present in 30.7% of the chromosomes analysed (146 chromosomes). Other recurrent mutations described were N50S, 550DeltaA, G222R, IVS6-1G-->A, A483D, IVS17+1G-->T, 2069-2070DeltaAC, R748Q and R748X, each of which was found in >5 chromosomes. The type of mutation in the CAPN3 gene does not appear to be a risk factor for becoming dependent on a wheelchair at a determined age. However, in the cases with two null mutations, there were significantly fewer patients that were able to walk than in the group of patients with at least one missense mutation. Despite the fact that the results of phenotyping and western blot might be biased due to multiple referral centres, producing a diagnosis on the basis of the classical phenotype is neither sufficiently sensitive (86.7%) nor specific (69.3%), although western blot proved to be even less sensitive (52.5%) yet more specific (87.8%). In this case LGMD2I was a relevant cause of false-positive diagnoses. Considering both the clinical phenotype and the biochemical information together, the probability of correctly diagnosing a calpainopathy is very high (90.8%). However, if one of the analyses is lacking, the probability varies from 78.3 to 73.7% depending on the information available. When both tests are negative, the probability that the sample comes from a patient with LGMD2A was 12.2%.
    Brain 05/2005; 128(Pt 4):732-42. DOI:10.1093/brain/awh408 · 10.23 Impact Factor