"Significant mortality is associated with HAE; undiagnosed HAE carries a 30-40% mortality rate, mainly from upper airway obstruction . Furthermore, patients suffer from important morbidity and disabling symptoms, and may be debilitated for 20-100 days per year . New medications have been developed for both treatment of acute attacks and for prophylaxis (short-term and long-term). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by episodic angioedema, which may be triggered by invasive procedures and surgery. C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) was approved in the United States and Canada in 2009 and 2010, respectively, for the treatment of acute attacks. Most recently in April 2013, it was approved in Europe for short-term prophylaxis (STP), prior to medical, dental, or surgical procedures, to prevent HAE attacks in both children and adults. Currently, C1 INH is not approved in Canada or the United States for STP of HAE attacks. Our objective was to demonstrate the effectiveness of C1 INH as a short-term prophylactic treatment for patients with Type I HAE undergoing invasive surgical procedures.
A retrospective chart review between 1997-2013 was performed at one Canadian Tertiary Care Allergy and Asthma Clinic affiliated with The Ottawa Hospital, in Ottawa, Canada. The standard dose of C1 INH for STP was 10 or 20 U/kg.
In all 24 procedures, there were no post-procedure HAE attacks after short-term prophylactic administration of C1 INH.
In this retrospective chart review at one tertiary care Allergy and Clinical Immunology Clinic, short-term prophylactic use of C1 INH was found to be effective at preventing post-procedure HAE attacks, in patients diagnosed with Type I HAE.
"It is a rare but serious and potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling, typically in the gastrointestinal tract, extremities, face, larynx, and/or urogenitals [1-6]. The prevalence has been estimated to be around 1 in 50,000 [6,7]. Attacks vary unpredictably with respect to severity, frequency, and body site, and can be life-threatening due to risk of asphyxiation [4,8,9]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare but serious and potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The study objective was to characterize direct and indirect resource utilization associated with HAE from the patient perspective in Europe.
The study was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE via a cross-sectional survey of HAE patients, including direct and indirect resource utilization during and between attacks for patients and their caregivers over the past 6 months. A regression model examined predictors of medical resource utilization.
Overall, 164 patients had an attack in the past 6 months and were included in the analysis. The most significant predictor of medical resource utilization was the severity of the last attack (OR 2.6; p < 0.001). Among patients who sought medical care during the last attack (23%), more than half utilized the emergency department. The last attack prevented patients from their normal activities an average of 4–12 hours. Patient and caregiver absenteeism increased with attack severity and frequency. Among patients who were working or in school (n = 120), 72 provided work/school absenteeism data, resulting in an estimated 20 days missing from work/school on average per year; 51% (n = 84) indicated that HAE has hindered their career/educational advancement.
HAE poses a considerable burden on patients and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks.
"J L Milton was the first to describe HAE, in 1876,4 and Quincke was the first to assign the name “angioneurotic edema” to the disease, in 1882.5 Mental stress was observed to have an effect on exacerbations of the disease, thus the word “neurotic” was used as part of its name. Sir William Osler, in 1888, was the first to provide a detailed description of HAE over five generations, thus noting the hereditary component of this disease.6 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant, potentially life-threatening condition, manifesting as recurrent and self-limiting episodes of facial, laryngeal, genital, or peripheral swelling with abdominal pain secondary to intra-abdominal edema. The estimated prevalence of HAE in the general population is one individual per 50,000, with reported ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:150,000, without major sex or ethnic differences. Various treatment options for acute attacks and prophylaxis of HAE are authorized and available in the market, including plasma-derived (Berinert®, Cinryze®, and Cetor®) and recombinant (Rhucin® and Ruconest™) C1 inhibitors, kallikrein inhibitor-ecallantide (Kalbitor®), and bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist-icatibant (Firazyr®). Some of these drugs are used only to treat HAE attacks, whereas others are only approved for prophylactic therapies and all of them have improved disease outcomes due to their different mechanisms of action. Bradykinin and its binding to B2 receptor have been demonstrated to be responsible for most of the symptoms of HAE. Thus icatibant (Firazyr®), a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, has proven to be an effective and more targeted treatment option and has been approved for the treatment of acute attacks of HAE. Rapid and stable relief from symptoms of cutaneous, abdominal, or laryngeal HAE attacks has been demonstrated by 30 mg of icatibant in Phase III clinical trials. Self-resolving mild to moderate local site reactions after subcutaneous injection of icatibant were observed. Icatibant is a new, safe, and effective treatment for acute attacks of HAE. HAE has been reported to result in enormous humanistic burden to patients, affecting both physical and mental health, with a negative impact on education, career, and work productivity, and with substantial economic burdens. The timely and proper use of disease-specific treatments could improve patients' quality of life, reduce the disease-specific morbidity and mortality, and, last but not least, reduce costs associated with hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Therefore, the paradigm of HAE treatment has the potential to evolve significantly, thereby exponentially improving a patient's quality of life.
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