Watson MA, Fleming TPMammaglobin, a mammary-specific member of the uteroglobin gene family, is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Cancer Res 56: 860-865

Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 03/1996; 56(4):860-5.
Source: PubMed


In this report, we describe a novel cDNA isolated from a primary human breast adenocarcinoma and differentially expressed in several breast carcinoma cell lines. The protein encoded by this cDNA, which we have named mammaglobin, is homologous to a family of secreted proteins that includes rat prostatic steroid-binding protein subunit C3, human Clara cell 10-kilodalton protein, and rabbit uteroglobin. Expression of the mammaglobin gene is restricted to the adult mammary gland. More significantly, in an analysis of 35 breast tumor biopsies, mammaglobin mRNA levels were increased at least 10-fold relative to normal breast tissue in 23% of cases. The breast-specific expression of this potentially secreted protein and its frequent overexpression in primary human breast tumors suggest that mammaglobin may be a novel marker for the management of breast cancer.

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    • "In preliminary attempts at determining the clinical utility of mammaglobin as a breast tumour marker, Watson and Fleming27 found that mammaglobin mRNA expression was multiplied by at least 10-fold when compared to normal breast tissue, using RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, whereas by immunohistochemistry, they detected hMAG in 91 per cent of the breast cancer cases, independent of stage and histological type35. Similarly, a number of subsequent studies described the detection of mammaglobin at high levels in primary breast cancers, while it was either undetectable in non-breast tumours or present at low levels in healthy breast tissue, but not in other tissues, making it a suitable candidate for diagnosis of breast cancer3738394041424344. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human mammaglobin is a member of the uteroglobin proteins family that has recently been tested as a specific marker for breast cancer. While low levels may be seen in normal breast tissue, expression is increased dramatically in breast cancer and is correlated with higher grade. Detection in blood and body fluids is also correlated with cancer metastasis, and its levels with prognosis. This promises to be a useful screen for early detection of breast cancer, especially in high risk individuals. Mammoglobin has also been used for immunotherapeutic targeting of breast cancer cells. However, there are some controversies regarding its diagnostic efficacy and prognostic value, which warrant further study.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 05/2014; 139(5):675-85. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, identification of a good target marker is of the utmost importance for CTC detection. Several gene markers, such as MGB1, a member of a family of epithelial secretory proteins, the uteroglobulins, is considered to be a specific breast marker (Watson et al., 1996). MGB 1 has been studied as a marker for the molecular detection of CTCs in gastrointestinal cancers (Leelawat et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most frequent carcinoma in females and the second most common cause of cancer related mortality in women. Early detection of breast cancer is widely reported to be one of the most effective ways leading to better prognosis and lower death rate. For marker discovery, the analysis of mRNA expression signatures in peripheral human blood has been widely used showing to be a promising technique. The human mammaglobin (MGB 1) is a novel gene that was diagnosed as a highly specific marker for primary breast cancer. The aim of the present study is to detect the expression levels of the human mammaglobin (MGB 1) mRNAs in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients in comparison with benign tumors and healthy controls as a tool for screening and diagnosis the early stage breast cancers, and estimating the prognostic values of these levels in association with age, tumor size and lymph node status. The marker was determined in peripheral blood (PB) of 55 patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma and samples from 20 healthy donors, and 10 women with newly diagnosed benign breast tumors were served as control group using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mammaglobin was detected in 30 (54.5%) of peripheral blood of breast cancer patients studied, 1(10%) of the benign tumors but not in any of healthy individuals. It showed statistically significant relations with size of the tumor, and Lymph node involvement. On the other hand, it was statistically non- significant for age of breast cancer patients. The present study results suggest that mammaglobin is a specific molecular marker for detection of breast cancer, discrimination between benign and malignant breast tumors, and it might be of value as a prognostic marker
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    • "Mammaglobin is a recently described marker of breast differentiation [62-64]: its expression has been reported in 70% to 80% of primary and metastatic breast tumors and overexpression in breast cancer tissues is associated with an unfavorable prognosis [65]. Moreover, because its expression is not altered at the metastatic site, mammaglobin may aid in the identification of breast carcinomas presenting in metastatic spread [62,66], while changes in ER, PgR, and HER2 status have been described in a significant number of patients over the course of disease progression [67]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metastases from breast cancer cause the frequent involvement of lung, bone, liver, and brain, while the occurrence of metastases to the gastrointestinal tract is rare, and more frequently discovered after a primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Solitary pancreatic metastases from breast cancer, without widespread disease, are actually unusual, and only 19 cases have been previously described; truly exceptional is a solitary pancreatic metastasis becoming evident together with the primary breast cancer. A 68-year-old woman reported general fatigue, lethargy, and jaundice. Abdominal ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an ampulloma of Vater's papilla; moreover, a neoplastic nodule in the left breast was diagnosed. She underwent surgery for both breast cancer and ampulloma of Vater's papilla. Pathological examination of pancreatic specimen, however, did not confirm primary carcinoma of the duodenal papilla, but showed a metastatic involvement of pancreas from lobular breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry has been essential to confirm the origin of the malignancy: hormone receptors and mammaglobin were expressed in both the primary breast tumor and the pancreatic metastasis. This is one of the few reported cases in literature of an isolated and synchronous pancreatic metastasis from breast cancer, where the definitive diagnosis was obtained only after surgery. We discuss the controversies in this diagnosis and the choice of correct treatment. The surgical resection of solitary metastases can be performed in the absence of disseminated disease.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 01/2014; 12(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-12-2 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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