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Watson MA, Fleming TPMammaglobin, a mammary-specific member of the uteroglobin gene family, is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Cancer Res 56: 860-865

Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 03/1996; 56(4):860-5.
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ABSTRACT In this report, we describe a novel cDNA isolated from a primary human breast adenocarcinoma and differentially expressed in several breast carcinoma cell lines. The protein encoded by this cDNA, which we have named mammaglobin, is homologous to a family of secreted proteins that includes rat prostatic steroid-binding protein subunit C3, human Clara cell 10-kilodalton protein, and rabbit uteroglobin. Expression of the mammaglobin gene is restricted to the adult mammary gland. More significantly, in an analysis of 35 breast tumor biopsies, mammaglobin mRNA levels were increased at least 10-fold relative to normal breast tissue in 23% of cases. The breast-specific expression of this potentially secreted protein and its frequent overexpression in primary human breast tumors suggest that mammaglobin may be a novel marker for the management of breast cancer.

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    • "Therefore, identification of a good target marker is of the utmost importance for CTC detection. Several gene markers, such as MGB1, a member of a family of epithelial secretory proteins, the uteroglobulins, is considered to be a specific breast marker (Watson et al., 1996). MGB 1 has been studied as a marker for the molecular detection of CTCs in gastrointestinal cancers (Leelawat et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most frequent carcinoma in females and the second most common cause of cancer related mortality in women. Early detection of breast cancer is widely reported to be one of the most effective ways leading to better prognosis and lower death rate. For marker discovery, the analysis of mRNA expression signatures in peripheral human blood has been widely used showing to be a promising technique. The human mammaglobin (MGB 1) is a novel gene that was diagnosed as a highly specific marker for primary breast cancer. The aim of the present study is to detect the expression levels of the human mammaglobin (MGB 1) mRNAs in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients in comparison with benign tumors and healthy controls as a tool for screening and diagnosis the early stage breast cancers, and estimating the prognostic values of these levels in association with age, tumor size and lymph node status. The marker was determined in peripheral blood (PB) of 55 patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma and samples from 20 healthy donors, and 10 women with newly diagnosed benign breast tumors were served as control group using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mammaglobin was detected in 30 (54.5%) of peripheral blood of breast cancer patients studied, 1(10%) of the benign tumors but not in any of healthy individuals. It showed statistically significant relations with size of the tumor, and Lymph node involvement. On the other hand, it was statistically non- significant for age of breast cancer patients. The present study results suggest that mammaglobin is a specific molecular marker for detection of breast cancer, discrimination between benign and malignant breast tumors, and it might be of value as a prognostic marker
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    • "Previous reports have suggested that detection of CTCs in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients can be an independent prognostic factor for the disease [14] [15] [16] [17]. However, in the last consensus meetings on breast cancer markers it was established that there is still a need for more clinical evidence in order to incorporate CTCs detection in breast carcinoma routine clinical studies [18] [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A one-tube nested RT-PCR protocol was set up and used to detect mammaglobin A (MGA) expression in blood samples from breast cancer patients. The correlation of MGA detection with prognostic factors was analyzed. Total RNA from nucleated blood cells was extracted from 65 breast cancer patients (before surgery and after the treatments) and 18 healthy subjects and used to detect MGA expression by a modified nested RT-PCR. MGA expression was detected in 38.4% of patients before surgery, and in 50% and 36.8% of post-treatment samples from patients that expressed MGA or were MGA negative before surgery, respectively. MGA detection was associated with the absence of tumor estrogen receptors (p=0.004). MGA detection by the modified nested RT-PCR is a specific marker for circulating tumor cells in patients with breast carcinoma and a negative prognostic factor for the disease.
    Clinical biochemistry 09/2011; 44(17-18):1429-33. DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2011.08.1140 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    • "In 1996, using a modified differential display technique, Watson and Fleming identified a novel gene, termed Mammaglobin [6]. Mammaglobin A is a highly specific marker for breast tissue since its expression is restricted to the adult Clinical Biochemistry 39 (2006) 879 – 887 mammary gland and to mammary tumor cell lines and is overexpressed in primary human breast tumors as compared to normal breast tissue [7] [8] [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The development and validation of a nested RT-PCR methodology for the detection of Mammaglobin A-mRNA-positive circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of patients with operable breast cancer and evaluation of its prognostic significance. Different combinations of specific primers were in silico designed and selected, so that false positive results due to genomic DNA contamination were avoided. The specificity of the primers used was evaluated in 30 healthy individuals, 20 patients with colorectal cancer and 20 patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The method was applied in 101 patients with operable breast cancer before the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and 39 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Mammaglobin A-mRNA-positive cells were detected in 14/101 (13.9%) of early breast cancer patients but not in the control population studied (0%); 9 of them (64.3%) relapsed during the follow-up period. Mammaglobin A was detected in 7/39 (17.9%) of patients with verified metastasis. Multivariate analysis revealed the detection of Mammaglobin A-mRNA-positive cells, as an independent risk factor for reduced DFI. Mammaglobin A is a highly specific molecular marker for the detection of circulating tumor cells in operable breast cancer, with important prognostic applications.
    Clinical Biochemistry 10/2006; 39(9):879-87. DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.06.009 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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