Glucose-induced inactivation of isocitrate lyase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits Tpk1 and Tpk2.
ABSTRACT Glucose-induced inactivation of isocitrate lyase (Icl) has been related to protein phosphorylation. Moreover, since rapid reversible inactivation preceded irreversible inactivation of the enzyme, phosphorylation was proposed as the triggering reaction that makes the enzyme accessible to the proteolytic machinery. The protein kinase involved in the process is unknown at the moment. In this work we demonstrate that Tpk1 and Tpk2, the catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, are involved in the signalling of short-term and long-term inactivation processes of Icl. We also demonstrate that threonine 53 is involved in a regulatory mechanism necessary for short-term reversible inactivation of Icl, probably mediated through its phosphorylation. Other, as yet unidentified, residues are likely to be the target of distinct protein kinases mediating the irreversible long-term inactivation of Icl.
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ABSTRACT: Glycolic acid is a C2 hydroxy acid that is a widely used chemical compound. It can be polymerised to produce biodegradable polymers with excellent gas barrier properties. Currently, glycolic acid is produced in a chemical process using fossil resources and toxic chemicals. Biotechnological production of glycolic acid using renewable resources is a desirable alternative. The yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis are suitable organisms for glycolic acid production since they are acid tolerant and can grow in the presence of up to 50 g l-1 glycolic acid. We engineered S. cerevisiae and K. lactis for glycolic acid production using the reactions of the glyoxylate cycle to produce glyoxylic acid and then reducing it to glycolic acid. The expression of a high affinity glyoxylate reductase alone already led to glycolic acid production. The production was further improved by deleting genes encoding malate synthase and the cytosolic form of isocitrate dehydrogenase. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced up to about 1 g l-1 of glycolic acid in a medium containing d-xylose and ethanol. Similar modifications in K. lactis resulted in a much higher glycolic acid titer. In a bioreactor cultivation with d-xylose and ethanol up to 15 g l-1 of glycolic acid was obtained. This is the first demonstration of engineering yeast to produce glycolic acid. Prior this work glycolic acid production through glyoxylate cycle has only been reported in bacteria. The benefit of yeast host is the possibility for glycolic acid production also in low pH which was demonstrated in flask cultivations. Production of glycolic acid was first shown in S. cerevisiae. To test whether a Crabtree negative yeast would be better suited for glycolic acid production we engineered K. lactis in the same way and demonstrated it to be a better host for glycolic acid production.Microbial Cell Factories 09/2013; 12(1):82. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Ras/cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is a nutrient-sensitive signaling cascade that regulates vegetative growth, carbohydrate metabolism, and entry into meiosis. How this pathway controls later steps of meiotic development is largely unknown. Here, we have analyzed the role of the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway in spore formation by the meiosis-specific manipulation of Ras and PKA or by the disturbance of cAMP production. We found that the regulation of spore formation by acetate takes place after commitment to meiosis and depends on PKA and appropriate A kinase activation by Ras/Cyr1 adenylyl cyclase but not by activation through the Gpa2/Gpr1 branch. We further discovered that spore formation is regulated by carbon dioxide/bicarbonate, and an analysis of mutants defective in acetate transport (ady2Δ) or carbonic anhydrase (nce103Δ) provided evidence that these metabolites are involved in connecting the nutritional state of the meiotic cell to spore number control. Finally, we observed that the potential PKA target Ady1 is required for the proper localization of the meiotic plaque proteins Mpc70 and Spo74 at spindle pole bodies and for the ability of these proteins to initiate spore formation. Overall, our investigation suggests that the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of spore formation by acetate and indicates that the control of meiotic development by this signaling cascade takes places at several steps and is more complex than previously anticipated.Eukaryotic Cell 06/2012; 11(8):1021-32. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The glyoxylate cycle plays an essential role for anaplerosis of oxaloacetate during growth of microorganisms on carbon sources such as acetate or fatty acids and has been shown to contribute to virulence of several pathogens. Here, we investigated the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of the glyoxylate cycle key enzyme isocitrate lyase (PbICL) in the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Although sequence analyses on fungal isocitrate lyases revealed a high phylogenetic conservation, their regulation seems to differ significantly. Closely related Aspergillus species regulate the glyoxylate cycle at the transcriptional level, whereas Pbicl was constitutively expressed in yeast cells. However, only low PbICL activity was detected when cells were grown in the presence of glucose. Two-dimensional gel analyses with subsequent antibody hybridization revealed constitutive production of PbICL, but low PbICL activity on glucose coincided with extensive protein phosphorylation. Since an in vitro dephosphorylation of PbICL from glucose grown cells strongly increased ICL activity and resembled the phosphorylation pattern of highly active acetate grown cells, post-translational modification seems the main mechanism regulating PbICL activity in yeast cells. In agreement, a transfer of yeast cells from glucose to acetate medium increased PbICL activity without requirement of de novo protein synthesis. Thus, inactivation of PbICL by phosphorylation is reversible, denoting a new strategy for the rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions.FEBS Journal 07/2011; 278(13):2318-32. · 4.25 Impact Factor