The multicentre south European study “Helios” I: Skin characteristics and sunburns in basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin

Registro de Càncer de Granada, Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, Spain.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.82). 07/1996; 73(11):1440-6. DOI: 10.1038/bjc.1996.274
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate constitutional and environmental determinants of non-melanocytic skin cancer among different populations from south Europe. Between 1989 and 1993 we interviewed incident cases and a random population sample of controls from five centres where a cancer registry was operating, whereas we selected a sample of hospital-based cases and controls from three other centres. Controls were stratified according to the age and sex distribution of cases. In all, 1549 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 228 of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 1795 controls were interviewed. Both cancers affected primarily sun-exposed sites such as face, head and neck, but the prevalence of BCC on the trunk was higher than for SCC. Pigmentary traits such as hair and eye colour as well as tendency to sunburn were strong and independent indicators of risk for both BCC and SCC. In SCC, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.6 for fair hair colour to 12.5 for red hair. Light-blonde hair entailed a risk of about 2 for BCC. Pale eye colour was associated with a risk of 1.8 for SCC and 1.4 for BCC. Subjects who always burn and never tan showed an adjusted OR of 2.7 for BCC and 2.0 for SCC. A history of sunburns and a young age at first sunburn were associated with an increased risk for BCC only (OR 1.7). Pigmentary traits and sun sensitivity of the skin confirmed their role as risk indicators. The effect of sunburns, as an indicator of both exposure and sun sensitivity of the skin, is less clear. Nevertheless, its association with BCC suggests, by analogy with melanoma, a relationship with intense sun exposure. Conversely, SCC would require prolonged exposure to sunlight.

    • "The vast majority of NMSC are basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) with a BCC/SCC incidence ratio in immunocompetent patients of 4 : 1. BCC is the most common cancer in populations of European origin and accounts for 29% of all cancers (DePinho, 2000), although it is less likely to be lethal and rarely metastasises. Previous studies identified solar UV irradiation, fair skin, red hair and freckles as the most relevant risk factors for NMSC development (Rosso et al, 1996; Zanetti et al, 1996; IARC, 2012). The melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) gene is involved in the genetics of human pigmentation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) gene regulates human pigmentation and is highly polymorphic in populations of European origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between MC1R variants and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and to investigate whether risk estimates differed by phenotypic characteristics. Data on 3527 NMSC cases and 9391 controls were gathered through the M-SKIP Project, an international pooled-analysis on MC1R, skin cancer and phenotypic characteristics. We calculated summary odds ratios (SOR) with random-effect models, and performed stratified analyses. Subjects carrying at least one MC1R variant had an increased risk of NMSC overall, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): SOR (95%CI) were 1.48 (1.24-1.76), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.61 (1.35-1.91), respectively. All of the investigated variants showed positive associations with NMSC, with consistent significant results obtained for V60L, D84E, V92M, R151C, R160W, R163Q and D294H: SOR (95%CI) ranged from 1.42 (1.19-1.70) for V60L to 2.66 (1.06-6.65) for D84E variant. In stratified analysis, there was no consistent pattern of association between MC1R and NMSC by skin type, but we consistently observed higher SORs for subjects without red hair. Our pooled-analysis highlighted a role of MC1R variants in NMSC development and suggested an effect modification by red hair colour phenotype.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 June 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.231
    British Journal of Cancer 06/2015; 113(2). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2015.231 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    • "To our knowledge, a large-scale epidemiologic study focused exclusively on BCC among young adults has not been previously reported. In our unique population, the magnitudes of risk associated with phenotype characteristics often associated with BCC were generally magnified as compared to studies in older individuals (Dessinioti et al., 2010; Hogan et al., 1989; Kiiski et al., 2010; Maia et al., 1995; Naldi et al., 2000; Vitasa et al., 1990; Zanetti et al., 1996). Although BCC is relatively rare in young people, 37% of our cases had two or more BCCs under the age of 40, and the association with each of our exposures was much stronger for these cases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence is increasing, particularly among adults under the age of 40 years. Pigment-related characteristics are associated with BCC in older populations, but epidemiologic studies among younger individuals and analyses of phenotype-genotype interactions are limited. We examined self-reported phenotypes and melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) variants in relation to early-onset BCC. BCC cases (n=377) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=390) under the age of 40 years were identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database. Factors most strongly associated with early-onset BCC were skin reaction to first summer sun for 1 hour (severe sunburn vs. tan odds ratio (OR)=12.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.08-36.94) and skin color (very fair vs. olive OR=11.06, 95% CI=5.90-20.74). Individuals with two or more MC1R non-synonymous variants were 3.59 times (95% CI=2.37-5.43) more likely to have BCC than those without non-synonymous variants. All host characteristics and MC1R were more strongly associated with multiple BCC case status (37% of cases) than a single BCC case status. MC1R, number of moles, skin reaction to first summer sun for 1 hour, and hair and skin color were independently associated with BCC. BCC risk conferred by MC1R tended to be stronger among those with darker pigment phenotypes, traditionally considered to be at low risk of skin cancer.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 12/2011; 132(4):1272-9. DOI:10.1038/jid.2011.402 · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    • "A survey in France of 10,064 individuals (Gloor et al. 1981) showed that blueeyed individuals comprised 30% of the sample. In a random sample of 1,795 individuals from Italy (Zanetti et al. 1996), 24% were blue eyed. The more frequent within a society the blue eye trait is, the less reliably the birth of blue-eyed offspring from blue-eyed parents would index that infidelity and philandering did not occur. "
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    ABSTRACT: The human eye color blue reflects a simple, predictable, and reliable genetic mechanism of inheritance. Blue-eyed individuals represent a unique condition, as in their case there is always direct concordance between the genotype and phenotype. On the other hand, heterozygous brown-eyed individuals carry an allele that is not concordant with the observed eye color. Hence, eye color can provide a highly visible and salient cue to the child’s heredity. If men choose women with characteristics that promote the assurance of paternity, then blue-eyed men should prefer and feel more attracted towards women with blue eyes. To test these predictions, close-up photos of young women and adult men with either blue or brown eyes were rated for their attractiveness by young women and men observers with either blue or brown eyes (N=88). The eye color in the photographs of each model was manipulated so that a same face would be shown with either the natural eye color (e.g., blue) or with the other color (e.g., brown). Both blue-eyed and brown-eyed female participants showed no difference in their attractiveness ratings for male models of either eye color. Similarly, brown-eyed men showed no preference for either blue-eyed or brown-eyed female models. However, blue-eyed men rated as more attractive the blue-eyed women than the brown-eyed ones. We interpret the latter preference in terms of specific mate selective choice of blue-eyed men, reflecting strategies for reducing paternity uncertainty. In a second study, a group of young adults (N=443) of both sexes and different eye colors (blue, brown, and green) were asked to report the eye and hair color of their romantic partners. Their responses indicated the presence of assortative mating by eye color as well as, to a less degree, for hair color. Most importantly, blue-eyed male respondents were the group with the largest proportion of partners of same eye color. These findings 1) indicate that blue-eyed men do prefer women with the same eye color and 2) specifically suggest the presence of a male adaptation for the detection of extra-pair paternity based on eye color, as a phenotypically based assurance of paternity (i.e., when the father’s and offspring’s phenotypes match) as well as a defense against cuckoldry (i.e., when the phenotypes do not match).
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 01/2007; 61(3):371-384. DOI:10.1007/s00265-006-0266-1 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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