Report of the Expert Panel on Awareness and Behavior Change to the Board of Directors, American Heart Association
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- "Their model is shown in Figure 1. In this model " Increased awareness and knowledge is often a necessary first step before behavioral change " (Carleton et al, 1996) and is easy to measure. However, they noted the associated limitation that awareness and knowledge on their own are universally perceived as insufficient for promotion and maintenance of long-term behavioural change. "
ABSTRACT: This literature review covers research on public awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. It reviews the types of questions used in health surveys to gauge people’s awareness and knowledge about heart disease and stroke, including warning signs, what people should or would do in the event being present when someone was having a heart attack or stroke, and what people know about preventing or lowering their risk for CVD. The information gathered was intended to assist the development of a questionnaire suitable for use in New Zealand. Four general categories of questions were commonly used in surveys. These were; * general knowledge and awareness of risk factors for CHD and stroke which included knowledge about the risks of high blood cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, excess weight and lack of exercise, * recognition of symptoms and warning signs, *actions to take if someone were having a heart attack or stroke, and * asking survey participants to assess their own risk of experiencing a heart attack or stroke. Four main types of question formats were used; open-ended, semi-structured, and structured questions and structured responses to statements. Some surveys included questions with more than one format, for example using open-ended questions initially, followed by structured questions. Differences in knowledge about the risk factors and warning signs for CVD and stroke were reported in many of the surveys. In terms of gender differences, women tended to have more knowledge of the risk factors and warning signs for CHD and stroke. With regard to age differences, people in the middle adult age groups (around 40-64 years) tend to be more knowledgeable than older (65+ years) and younger age groups (less than 35 years). Educational interventions have been used with multiple population groups including general adult, specific groups selected by age or location and groups selected by health status. These interventions range from brief one-session events lasting less than an hour to extensive programmes over several weeks run in high schools. Four studies reporting programmes designed to modify risk factors used groups selected as high risk (e.g., older age groups) or people having a previously identified health risk factor such as having had a stroke. Two mass media programmes both used television and print media advertisements in selected cities or regions.
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ABSTRACT: Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by a layperson and prompt defibrillation in the field are critical links in the chain of survival of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. It has been suggested that minorities, women, and elderly persons are often left out of CPR training programs. To examine knowledge and attitudes toward CPR and automatic external defibrillation among African Americans, the author and colleagues conducted home interviews in a population sample of 425 older men and women in Miami-Dade County, FL. It was found that 25% of the participants did not know what CPR was. Only 18% of men and 28% of women had ever taken CPR classes. Mean age the time of CPR training was for men 36 years and for women 46 years. About 74% of all subjects did not know whom to contact for CPR training, and fewer than 5% knew about the American Heart Association Heartsaver Program (including automatic external defibrillation performed by laypersons). The majority of participants suggested churches or community organizations as organizers of CPR training. This study shows that there is a major need for improving knowledge and intensifying CPR training programs among older African Americans. Community organizations and churches may play a critical role in reaching this goal.The American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology 07/2004; 13(4):182-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1076-7460.2004.02525.x
Article: Exercise as Cardiovascular TherapyCirculation 03/1999; 99(7):963-72. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.99.7.963