Identification of a native Dichelobacter nodosus plasmid and implications for the evolution of the vap regions.
ABSTRACT Studies on the role of various virulence factors of the ovine pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus, have suffered from the absence of a mechanism for the introduction of DNA into this organism. As an initial step in the development of genetic methods, we have identified and cloned a native 10-kb plasmid, pJIR896, from a clinical isolate. This plasmid was found to be a circular form of vap region 1/3 that is found in the reference strain, A198. However, pJIR896 lacked the duplicated region present in the A198 sequence and instead contained a 1.7-kb putative insertion sequence, IS1253, which shared similarity to a number of unusual IS elements. A model is proposed for the evolution of vap region 1/3 which involves the integration of a plasmid, such as pJIR896, and subsequent rearrangements resulting from the deletion or transposition of IS1253.
- SourceAvailable from: Peter Kuhnert[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dichelobacter nodosus, the etiological agent of ovine footrot, exists both as virulent and as benign strains, which differ in virulence mainly due to subtle differences in the three subtilisin-like proteases AprV2, AprV5 and BprV found in virulent, and AprB2, AprB5 and BprB in benign strains of D. nodosus. Our objective was a molecular genetic epidemiological analysis of the genes of these proteases by direct sequence analysis from clinical material of sheep from herds with and without history of footrot from 4 different European countries. The data reveal the two proteases known as virulent AprV2 and benign AprB2 to correlate fully to the clinical status of the individuals or the footrot history of the herd. In samples taken from affected herds, the aprV2 gene was found as a single allele whereas in samples from unaffected herds several alleles with minor modifications of the aprB2 gene were detected. The different alleles of aprB2 were related to the herds. The aprV5 and aprB5 genes were found in the form of several alleles scattered without distinction between affected and non-affected herds. However, all different alleles of aprV5 and aprB5 encode the same amino acid sequences, indicating the existence of a single protease isoenzyme 5 in both benign and virulent strains. The genes of the basic proteases BprV and BprB also exist as various alleles. However, differences found in samples from affected versus non-affected herds do not reflect the currently known epitopes that are attributed to differences in biochemical activity. The data of the study confirm the prominent role of AprV2 in the virulence of D. nodosus and shed a new light on the presence of the other protease genes and their allelic variants in clinical samples.Veterinary Microbiology 11/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Gram-negative anaerobic pathogen Dichelobacter nodosus is the principal causative agent of footrot in sheep. The intA, intB and intC elements are mobile genetic elements which integrate into two tRNA genes downstream from csrA (formerly glpA) and pnpA in the D. nodosus chromosome. CsrA homologues act as global repressors of virulence in several bacterial pathogens, as does polynucleotide phosphorylase, the product of pnpA. We have proposed a model in which virulence in D. nodosus is controlled in part by the integration of genetic elements downstream from csrA and pnpA, altering the expression of these putative global regulators of virulence. We describe here a novel integrated genetic element, the intD element, which is 32kb in size and contains an integrase gene, intD, several genes related to genes on other integrated elements of D. nodosus, a type IV secretion system and a putative mobilisation region, suggesting that the intD element has a role in the transfer of other genetic elements. Most of the D. nodosus strains examined which contained the intD gene were benign, with intD integrated next to pnpA, supporting our previous observation that virulent strains of D. nodosus have the intA element next to pnpA.Anaerobe 04/2009; 15(5):219-24. · 2.02 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The anaerobic bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus is the principal causative agent of ovine footrot, a mixed bacterial infection of the hoof. Although the bacterium only survives for a few days in soil, this period is crucial for transmission of the disease as sheep are infected by walking through soil or pasture contaminated with infectious bacteria. The D. nodosus genome is only 1.3Mb in size and has a dearth of genes encoding regulatory proteins. A series of genetic elements which integrate into the genome has been identified and we have proposed that these integrated genetic elements control the expression of adjacent genes encoding global regulators of virulence. The intA, intB, intC and intD elements integrate next to csrA or pnpA while the vrl integrates next to ssrA. CsrA, PnpA and the ssrA gene product, a 10SaRNA, have been shown to act as global virulence regulators in other bacteria. We have also identified a bacteriophage, DinoHI, which is integrated into the genome of some D. nodosus strains. Sequence analyses suggest that there are many possible interactions between these integrated genetic elements. The vrl contains a copy of the DinoHI packaging site, indicating that the vrl may be transferred between strains by the bacteriophage. DinoHI and the intB element have a common repressor gene, suggesting that maintenance of the integrated state of these two genetic elements is co-ordinately controlled. Similarly, a DNA segment resembling the bacteriophage P4 immunity region is present on the intA, intC and intD elements and may be responsible for maintaining these three genetic elements in the integrated state. The features of the intD element suggest that it is self-transmissible and also capable of mobilising the intA element. Exchange of sequences between these genetic elements may also occur. We discuss here evidence for a network of interactions between these genetic elements with implications for the control of virulence in D. nodosus.12/2010: pages 237-253;