The Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Hairpulling Scale: 1. development and factor analyses.
ABSTRACT We developed the MGH Hairpulling Scale to provide a brief, self-report instrument for assessing repetitive hairpulling. Seven individual items, rated for severity from 0 to 4, assess urges to pull, actual pulling, perceived control, and associated distress. We administered the scale to 119 consecutive patients with chronic hairpulling. Statistical analyses indicate that the seven items form a homogenous scale for the measurement of severity in this disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) are repetitive, injurious, and non-functional habits that cause significant distress or impairment, including hair-pulling, skin-picking, and nail-biting. The emotion regulation (ER) model suggests that BFRBs are triggered by negative emotions and reinforced by alleviation of unpleasant affect. The frustrated action (FA) model suggests that BFRBs are triggered by and alleviate impatience, boredom, frustration, and dissatisfaction. Individuals with BFRBs are hypothesized to be particularly susceptible to these emotions because they demonstrate maladaptive planning styles characterized by high standards and unwillingness to relax. Objectives The objective of this study was to test these two models. Methods This study compared urge to engage in BFRBs in a BFRB group (n = 24) and a control group (n = 23) in experimental conditions designed to elicit boredom/frustration, stress, and relaxation, respectively. Results The BFRB group reported a significant greater urge to engage in BFRBs than the control group across conditions. Participants in the BFRB group reported a stronger urge to engage in BFRBs in the boredom/frustration condition than in the relaxation condition but not in the stress condition. Finally, the BFRB group presented significantly higher scores on maladaptive planning style, and maladaptive planning style was significantly correlated with difficulties with ER. Limitations Future studies may wish to exclusively use validated mood induction and use more stringent inclusion criteria. Conclusions The results highlight the role of boredom, frustration, and impatience in triggering BFRBs, and support the FA model.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.10.007 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) exist examining the efficacy of behavior therapy (BT) or serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM), with no examination of treatment moderators. The present meta-analysis synthesized the treatment effect sizes (ES) of BT and SRI relative to comparison conditions, and examined moderators of treatment. A comprehensive literature search identified 11 RCTs that met inclusion criteria. Clinical characteristics (e.g., age, comorbidity, therapeutic contact hours), outcome measures, treatment subtypes (e.g., SRI subtype, BT subtype), and ES data were extracted. The standardized mean difference of change in hair pulling severity was the outcome measure. A random effects meta-analysis found a large pooled ES for BT (ES= 1.41, p< 0.001). BT trials with greater therapeutic contact hours exhibited larger ES (p= 0.009). Additionally, BT trials that used mood enhanced therapeutic techniques exhibited greater ES relative to trials including only traditional BT components (p= 0.004). For SRI trials, a random effects meta-analysis identified a moderate pooled ES (ES= 0.41, p= 0.02). Although clomipramine exhibited larger ES relative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, the difference was not statistically significant. Publication bias was not identified for either treatment. BT yields large treatment effects for TTM, with further examination needed to disentangle confounded treatment moderators. SRI trials exhibited a moderate pooled ES, with no treatment moderators identified. Sensitivity analyses highlighted the need for further RCTs of SRIs, especially among youth with TTM.Journal of Psychiatric Research 11/2014; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.07.015 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Psychological Inflexibility (PI) is a construct that has gained recent attention as a critical theoretical component of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). PI is typically measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II). However, the AAQ-II has shown questionable reliability in clinical populations with specific diagnoses, leading to the creation of content-specific versions of the AAQ-II that show stronger psychometric properties in their target populations. A growing body of literature suggests that PI processes may contribute to hair pulling, and the current study sought to examine the psychometric properties and utility of a Trichotillomania-specific version of the AAQ-II, the AAQ-TTM. A referred sample of 90 individuals completed a battery of assessments as part of a randomized clinical trial of Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania. Results showed that the AAQ-TTM has two intercorrelated factors, adequate reliability, concurrent validity, and incremental validity over the AAQ-II. Furthermore, mediational analysis between emotional variables and hair pulling outcomes provides support for using the AAQ-TTM to measure therapeutic process. Implications for the use of this measure will be discussed, including the need to further investigate the role of PI processes in Trichotillomania.Psychiatry Research 08/2014; 220(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.08.003 · 2.68 Impact Factor