Disability in geriatric depression.
ABSTRACT The authors' purpose was to identify the relationship of disability to clinical measures that are part of a comprehensive psychiatric examination of depressed elderly patients.
The disability of 75 elderly inpatients and outpatients with major depression whose cognitive function ranged from normality to mild dementia was assessed with the Philadelphia Multilevel Assessment Instrument. Age at onset of depression, chronicity of depression, severity of depression, cognitive impairment, medical burden, social support and living environment were assessed with standardized instruments.
Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living was significantly associated with advanced age, severity of depression, and medical burden. The relationship of depressive symptoms to impairment in instrumental activities of daily living was not influenced by age or medical burden. Anxiety and depressive ideation as well as retardation and weight loss were significantly associated with impairment in instrumental activities of daily living. Interviewer-rated global disability was associated with advanced age at onset of depression, medical burden, and overall cognitive impairment. Specifically, a disturbance in initiation and perseveration was significantly related to global disability.
Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living appears to be a relatively independent dimension of health status that is related to depressive symptoms, particularly anxiety and depressive ideation as well as retardation and weight loss. Global disability may be associated with impairment in initiation and perseveration and with late onset of depression. These findings provide a basis for studies investigating whether psychotherapy aimed at depressive ideation and rehabilitation efforts focused on instrumental activities of daily living can improve the outcome of geriatric depression.
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ABSTRACT: Although major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with disability, some persons do function well despite their illness. Aim of the present study was to examine the effect of illness characteristics and comorbid mental disorders on various aspects of disability among persons with a current MDD episode. Data were derived from 607 participants with a current MDD based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Severity was assessed via the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms self-report (IDS-SR). For disability three outcome measures were used: World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS) disability and its 7 dimensions, days out of role, and work absence. Using multiple regression analysis the effects of MDD characteristics and comorbid mental disorders were estimated. The IDS-SR score was the best predictor of all disability outcomes. Of the comorbid mental disorders, agoraphobia was significantly associated with overall disability. Collectively, all illness characteristics accounted for 43% of variance in WHODAS disability, 13% in days out of role and 10% in work absence, suggesting substantial unexplained variance. Only self-report measures of disability were used. There were no assessments of other diagnoses than depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders. Although heterogeneity in disability of persons with current MDD is partially explained by illness characteristics of MDD (especially symptom severity) and comorbid mental disorders, most of the variance is not accounted for.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2010; 127(1-3):203-10. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2010.05.024 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research has shown an association between depression and functional limitations in older adults. Our aim was to explore the latent traits of trajectories of limitations in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) tasks in a sample of older adults diagnosed with major depression. Participants were 248 patients enrolled in a naturalistic depression treatment study. Mobility/IADL tasks included walking one-fourth mile, going up/down stairs, getting around the neighborhood, shopping, handling money, taking care of children, cleaning house, preparing meals and doing yardwork/gardening. Latent class trajectory analysis was used to identify classes of mobility/IADL function over a 4-year period. Class membership was then used to predict functional status over time. Using time as the only predictor, three latent class trajectories were identified: (1) Patients with few mobility/IADL limitations (42%), (2) Patients with considerable mobility/IADL limitations (37%) and (3) Patients with basically no limitations (21%). The classes differed primarily in their initial functional status, with some immediate improvement followed by no further change for patients in Classes 1 and 2 and a stable course for patients in Class 3. In a repeated measures mixed model controlling for potential confounders, class was a significant predictor of functional status. The effect of baseline depression score, cognitive status, self-perceived health and sex on mobility/IADL score differed by class. These findings show systematic variability in functional status over time among older patients with major depression, indicating that a single trajectory may not reflect the pattern for all patients.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 01/2009; 25(1):74-81. DOI:10.1002/gps.2300 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examines the process whereby functional disability amplifies depressive symptoms through decreasing perceived social support and psychological resources. The study analyzed two waves of panel data (1986 to 1992) of a large sample of older adults from the National Institutes of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. The results of longitudinal change models and path analyses show that the perceived availability of a confidant, satisfaction with support, sense of control, and self-esteem mediate the effects of disability on increments in depressive symptoms in late life. Psychological resources play a dominant role in mediating the effects of functional impairment. Scales of sense of control and self-esteem account for 53 percent of the total effect of baseline disability and 43 percent of the total effect of changes in disability on changes in the CES-D depression scale. Self-esteem appears to be the strongest mediator.Journal of Health and Social Behavior 01/2007; 47(4):355-72. DOI:10.1177/002214650604700404 · 2.72 Impact Factor