Article

Inhibition of Giardia lamblia excystation by antibodies against cyst walls and by wheat germ agglutinin.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego Medical Center, 92103-8416, USA.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 4.07). 06/1996; 64(6):2151-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although excystation is crucial to the initiation of infection by Giardia lamblia, little is known about the regulation of this important process. We have been able to reliably induce excystation in vitro by mimicking cyst passage through the stomach and upper small intestine by the exposure of in vitro-derived cysts to an acidic, reducing environment (stage I) followed by protease treatment at a slightly alkaline pH (stage II). Preexposure of cysts to polyclonal rabbit antiserum against purified cyst walls (PCWs) or to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) inhibited excystation by > 90%. Adsorption of either ligand with PCWs eliminated inhibition, demonstrating specificity for cyst wall epitopes. Inhibition by WGA was reversed by either chitotriose or sialic acid, while inhibition by polyclonal antibodies against PCWs (anti-PCW) was reversed only by sialic acid, which also inhibited binding of both ligands to intact cysts and to cyst wall antigens in immunoblots. Binding of anti-PCW did not affect acidification of cyst cytoplasm during stage I. Exposure of cysts to anti-PCW and WGA prior to, but not after, stage II was sufficient to inhibit excystation, and inhibition could be partially reversed by increasing the protease concentration during stage II. A 7- to 10-fold higher proportion of WGA- and anti-PCW-treated cysts than control cysts remained intact after stage II. Our results suggest that these ligands, which bind cyst wall epitopes, inhibit excystation, most likely by interfering with proteolysis of cyst wall glycoproteins during stage II.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
120 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The infectious and diagnostic stage of Giardia lamblia (also known as G. intestinalis or G. duodenalis) is the cyst. The Giardia cyst wall contains fibrils of a unique beta-1,3-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer and at least three cyst wall proteins (CWPs) composed of Leu-rich repeats (CWP(LRR)) and a C-terminal conserved Cys-rich region (CWP(CRR)). Our goals were to dissect the structure of the cyst wall and determine how it is disrupted during excystation. The intact Giardia cyst wall is thin (approximately 400 nm), easily fractured by sonication, and impermeable to small molecules. Curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are restricted to a narrow plane and are coated with linear arrays of oval-shaped protein complex. In contrast, cyst walls of Giardia treated with hot alkali to deproteinate fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are thick (approximately 1.2 microm), resistant to sonication, and permeable. The deproteinated GalNAc homopolymer, which forms a loose lattice of curled fibrils, is bound by native CWP1 and CWP2, as well as by maltose-binding protein (MBP)-fusions containing the full-length CWP1 or CWP1(LRR). In contrast, neither MBP alone nor MBP fused to CWP1(CRR) bind to the GalNAc homopolymer. Recombinant CWP1 binds to the GalNAc homopolymer within secretory vesicles of Giardia encysting in vitro. Fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are exposed during excystation or by treatment of heat-killed cysts with chymotrypsin, while deproteinated fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are degraded by extracts of Giardia cysts but not trophozoites. These results show the Leu-rich repeat domain of CWP1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer. During excystation, host and Giardia proteases appear to degrade bound CWPs, exposing fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer that are digested by a stage-specific glycohydrolase.
    PLoS Pathogens 01/2010; 6(8):e1001059. · 8.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 14-3-3s are a family of phosphoserine/phosphothreonine binding proteins directly affecting many protein functions by regulating enzyme activity, intracellular localisation or mediating protein-protein interaction. The single 14-3-3 (g14-3-3) of the flagellated parasite Giardia duodenalis is phosphorylated at residue threonine 214 (T214) and polyglycylated at the extreme C-terminus in a stage-specific manner. To define the role of each post-translational modification, Giardia transgenic lines expressing a N-terminally FLAG-tagged g14-3-3, or the single point mutant T214A, or the E246A and the E247A mutants of the putative polyglycylation sites, were generated in this study. By affinity chromatography and MALDI-MS analysis, Glu246 was identified as the only site of polyglycylation. The absence of a polyglycine chain results in the nuclear localisation of the protein at any parasite life-stage, suggesting a role for polyglycylation in 14-3-3 nucleo/cytoplasm shuttling. Moreover, cyst formation was strongly induced in parasites expressing the E246A mutant and delayed in those harbouring the T214A mutant. Finally, in vitro overlay assays with a GST_T214E mutant indicated that phosphorylation can alter in vitro the binding properties of 14-3-3. The present data suggest that g14-3-3 post-translational modifications act in combination to affect encystation efficiency in Giardia.
    International journal for parasitology 10/2009; 40(2):201-13. · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteolytic activity is important in the lifecycles of parasites and their interactions with hosts. Cysteine proteases have been best studied in Giardia, but other protease classes have been implicated in growth and/or differentiation. In this study, we employed bioinformatics to reveal the complete set of putative proteases in the Giardia genome. We identified 73 peptidase homologs distributed over 5 catalytic classes in the genome. Serial analysis of gene expression of the G. lamblia lifecycle found thirteen protease genes with significant transcriptional variation over the lifecycle, with only one serine protease transcript upregulated late in encystation. The translated gene sequence of this encystation-specific transcript was most similar to eukaryotic subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPC), although the typical catalytic triad was not identified. Epitope-tagged gSPC protein expressed in Giardia under its own promoter was upregulated during encystation with highest expression in cysts and it localized to encystation-specific secretory vesicles (ESV). Total gSPC from encysting cells produced proteolysis in gelatin gels that co-migrated with the epitope-tagged protease in immunoblots. Immuno-purified gSPC also had gelatinase activity. To test whether endogenous gSPC activity is involved in differentiation, trophozoites and cysts were exposed to the specific serine proteinase inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF). After 21 h encystation, a significant decrease in ESV was observed with 1mM AEBSF and by 42 h the number of cysts was significantly reduced, but trophozoite growth was not inhibited. Concurrently, levels of cyst wall proteins 1 and 2, and AU1-tagged gSPC protein itself were decreased. Excystation of G. muris cysts was also significantly reduced in the presence of AEBSF. These results support the idea that serine protease activity is essential for Giardia encystation and excystation.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 11/2010; 175(2):169-80. · 2.73 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
1 Download
Available from