Effects of taboo words on color-naming performance on a Stroop test

Department of Social Psychology, University of Zürich, Switzerland.
Perceptual and Motor Skills (Impact Factor: 0.66). 01/1996; 81(3 Pt 2):1119-22. DOI: 10.2466/pms.1995.81.3f.1119
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effect of irrelevant taboo and control words on performance on the Stroop task was examined. The mean response time for taboo words was higher than that for control words. Single stimulus presentation made it possible to estimate internal consistency for interference of taboo words, which was acceptable (Cronbach alpha = .80).

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    • "Alternatively, Young and Cordes (2013) have argued that numerical estimations may be influenced by attentional focusing, resulting in heightened attention to arousing stimuli and coincident failure to encode each enumerable element within a visual display, thus resulting in numerical underestimation. Importantly, similar attention-based claims have been made for cognitive abilities in response to emotional stimuli in domains including visual search (Öhman and Esteves, 2001; Öhman et al., 2001), memory (MacKay and Ahmetzanov, 2005), Stroop color-naming (Siegrist, 1995; Williams et al., 1996), and others. Future studies should thus aim to tease apart potential effects of arousal vs. attention in both temporal and numerical estimation tasks, to better determine whether data truly support a common system of generalized magnitude processing. "
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    ABSTRACT: Both time and numerosity can be represented continuously as analog properties whose discrimination conforms to Weber's Law, suggesting that the two properties may be represented similarly. Recent research suggests that the representation of time is influenced by the presence of emotional stimuli. If time and numerosity share a common cognitive representation, it follows that a similar relationship may exist between emotional stimuli and the representation of numerosity. Here, we provide evidence that emotional stimuli significantly affect humans' estimation of visual numerosity. During a numerical bisection task, enumeration of emotional stimuli (angry faces) was more accurate compared to enumeration of neutrally valenced stimuli (neutral faces), demonstrating that emotional stimuli affect humans' visual representation of numerosity as previously demonstrated for time. These results inform and broaden our understanding of the effect of negative emotional stimuli on psychophysical discriminations of quantity.
    Frontiers in Psychology 08/2013; 4:521. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00521 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Contrary to negative words, the temporal course of the effects linked to taboo words has never been investigated. Nevertheless, it is widely recognized that taboo words do lead to fast effects (Eilola et al., 2007; MacKay & Ahmetzanov, 2005; MacKay et al., 2004; Schmidt & Saari, 2007; Siegrist, 1995; Taylor et al., 1997). As a matter of fact, interference effects consistently have been observed with taboo words in blocked and mixed designs, a situation revealing the influence of fast effects in theory. "
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    ABSTRACT: Using an auditory adaptation of the emotional and taboo Stroop tasks, the authors compared the effects of negative and taboo spoken words in mixed and blocked designs. Both types of words elicited carryover effects with mixed presentations and interference with blocked presentations, suggesting similar long-lasting attentional effects. Both were also relatively resilient to the long-lasting influence of the preceding emotional word. Hence, contrary to what has been assumed (Schmidt & Saari, 2007), negative and taboo words do not seem to differ in terms of the temporal dynamics of the interdimensional shifting, at least in the auditory modality.
    Emotion 02/2011; 11(1):29-37. DOI:10.1037/a0022017 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    • "This does not necessarily mean that emotional Stroop interference is restricted to selected populations, but probably that other techniques have been chosen to investigate attention to emotion in the wider population. For example, a related phenomenon is that of the taboo Stroop (Siegrist, 1995), in which colour naming times are longer for taboo than for neutral words. The taboo Stroop appears to be a fairly robust phenomenon, the attentional effects of which transfer to later memory tasks (MacKay et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: This review considers evidence from cognitive experimental investigations of attentional processing of emotional information. The review contrasts findings from the general population with those from populations selected for clinical disorder or vulnerability to it. Concepts critical for appreciation of this literature are presented and major cognitive theories are summarised, evaluated and compared. Empirical data are organised by type of attentional function, covering filtering (dichotic listening, emotional Stroop), search (visual search), cuing (attentional probe, spatial cuing) and multiple task (RSVP) paradigms. Conclusions are that, consistent with current models, differences in an “evaluative system” appear to lie at the heart of the phenomena reviewed and attentional biases to emotional material reflect the responsiveness of this system. If so, desensitising its over-reactivity would be the best approach to ameliorating the negative consequences of attentional biases in psychopathology. To do so requires greater understanding of how and on what basis the “evaluation” is conducted. A possible way forward is suggested.
    Cognition and Emotion 01/2010; 24(1-1):3-47. DOI:10.1080/02699930903205698 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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