Functional neuroanatomy of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.14). 02/1996; 57 Suppl 8:26-35; discussion 36.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was once considered rare, recent epidemiologic data suggest a lifetime prevalence rate of 2% to 3%. The morbidity associated with OCD is quite high compared to other psychiatric conditions. This report reviews neurologic, neuropsychological, and psychosurgical findings relevant to the functional neuroanatomy of OCD. In addition, it describes more recent investigations of OCD using a variety of brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Finally, it examines the results of an ongoing pilot study of high-resolution, full-volume, three-dimensional SPECT imaging in patients with OCD before and after treatment with fluvoxamine.

  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To explore the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cognitive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed for 139 OCD patients and 139 controls, and the radioactivity rate (RAR) was calculated. Cognitive function was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results: The RARs of the prefrontal, anterior temporal, and right occipital lobes were higher in patients than controls. For the WCST, correct and classification numbers were significantly lower, and errors and persistent errors were significantly higher in OCD patients. Right prefrontal lobe RAR was negatively correlated with correct numbers, right anterior temporal lobe RAR was positively correlated with errors, and the RARs of the right prefrontal lobe and left thalamus were positively correlated with persistent errors. Conclusion: OCD patients showed higher CBF in the prefrontal and anterior temporal lobes, suggesting that these areas may be related with cognitive impairment.
    Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria 01/2014; 72(1):44-8. DOI:10.1590/0004-282X20130205 · 0.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been studied extensively in recent years, with increased emphasis on understanding OCD’s biological substrates. There has been significant progress in documenting abnormal brain function in OCD patients, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Similar progress has broadened our understanding of the cognitive and behavioral manifestations of the disorder, including deficits in set shifting, hyperattention, and visuospatial construction abilities. Unfortunately, these results have not been replicated consistently. This report comprises a review of previous attempts to characterize the neurobiology and neuropsychology of OCD, and a discussion of several factors in OCD research that can help to explain previous inconsistencies.
    Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 06/1998; 5(2):161-172. DOI:10.3758/BF03212942 · 2.99 Impact Factor