Lipid and lipoprotein changes in women following 6 months of exercise training in a worksite fitness program
ABSTRACT It was the purpose of this investigation to examine the influence of a worksite aerobic training program on serum lipid and lipoproteins and cardiovascular fitness in female employees. Thirty-seven healthy but previously untrained, female employees (Ss) from Westinghouse Corporation, (College Station, Texas) volunteered for the study. Ss were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Ex) (n = 20) or control group (C) (n = 17). Prior to training (PRE) and following training (POST), all Ss were measured for weight (WT), body composition (%FAT) and tested for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max). PRE and POST Lipid analysis included: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Following PRE testing, the Ex group aerobically trained by walking, jogging and/or cycling, at least 3 days per wk for 24 wks. Exercise training resulted in an improvement in VO2 max (p < 0.0006) and a 2 kg WT loss in Ex (p < 0.025) with no change in C. Both Ex and C Ss exhibited a loss in %-FAT (p < 0.0001), and a decrease in TC (p < 0.0001) and LDL-C (p < 0.0001). No differences were observed between groups or over the training period for VLDL-C or TG. Although HDL-C increased 6 mg/dl in the Ex group but not in C, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p < 0.0625). These results demonstrate that aerobic training by females in a worksite fitness program significantly improves cardiovascular fitness without altering lipids or lipoproteins.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Peter Walter Grandjean, Apr 24, 2014
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- "Many factors, like diet, smoking and physical activity , influence levels of inflammatory biomarkers and the lipoprotein profile both separately and in combinations , as described in previous literature (Grandjean et al. 1996; Pedersen and Saltin 2006). Also, aerobic exercise has been previously shown to effectively reduce levels of inflammation biomarkers (Okita et al. 2004; Loprinzi et al. 2013; Plaisance and Grandjean 2006; Kasapis and Thompson 2005) and thereby risk of cardiovascular disease (Danesh et al. 2005; Kaptoge et al. 2010; de Ferranti and Rifai 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. Significant (p < 0.05) between-group reductions from baseline to follow-up were found for high-sensitive C-reactive protein (-0.54 ± 0.20 µg/ml; 95 % CI -0.94, -0.14), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.32 ± 0.11 mmol/L; 95 % CI -0.54, -0.10) and the ratios of LDL/HDL (-0.30 ± 0.08; 95 % CI -0.46, -0.14), and LDL/TC cholesterol (-0.04 ± 0.02; 95 % CI -0.07, -0.01). This study indicates that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs of cardiovascular overload.International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00420-015-1067-5 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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- "port the evidence that aerobic - type training exercise is effective in the improvement of blood lipid profile for both normolipidemic ( Dufaux et al . 1982 ) and hyperlipidemic individuals ( Superko and Haskell 1987 ) ; however , longitudinal studies are somewhat difficult to evaluate and do not demonstrate a clear influence on lipid metabolism ( Grandjean et al . 1996 ) . Moreover , there are disparate results concerning training peculiar - ities that could elicit changes on blood lipids , such as the type , the energy expenditure , the frequency , and the duration of each exercise session as well as the length of overall training period ( Durstine et al . 2001 ; Ferguson et al . 1998 ) . Recently , "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate in sedentary individuals the effects of a 20-week exercise training program on ex vivo platelet responsiveness and the possible involvement of plasma antioxidant defences in relation to the mechanisms controlling platelet sensitivity. A statistically significant decrease in ADP- and collagen-evoked platelet aggregation was observed after physical training together with an increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TEAC), superoxide dismutase activity, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration. Additionally, a rise in lag time for in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation as well as a decreased plasma level of secondary products of lipid peroxidation were observed after training, and the values for lag time were significantly correlated with TEAC and HDL-C. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) content both in plasma and in platelet cytosol was significantly enhanced at the end of the training period and a significant positive correlation was found between plasma and intraplatelet NOx values. Furthermore, intraplatelet NOx content was positively correlated with HDL-C levels. The findings of the current study suggest that the improvement of antioxidant defences induced by moderate regular exercise may be involved in desensitising blood platelets most likely through the inhibition of LDL oxidation and the simultaneous enhancement of plasma and intraplatelet NOx bioavailability and HDL-C level.Arbeitsphysiologie 05/2004; 91(4):406-12. DOI:10.1007/s00421-003-0998-9 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dose-response relationships between exercise training volume and blood lipid changes suggest that exercise can favourably alter blood lipids at low training volumes, although the effects may not be observable until certain exercise thresholds are met. The thresholds established from cross-sectional literature occur at training volumes of 24 to 32km (15 to 20 miles) per week of brisk walking or jogging and elicit between 1200 to 2200 kcal/wk. This range of weekly energy expenditure is associated with 2 to 3 mg/dl increases in high-density lipoprotein- cholestrol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) reductions of 8 to 20 mg/dl. Evidence from cross-sectional studies indicates that greater changes in HDL-C levels can be expected with additional increases in exercise training volume. HDL-C and TG changes are often observed after training regimens requiring energy expenditures similar to those characterised from cross-sectional data. Training programmes that elicit 1200 to 2200 kcal/wk in exercise are often effective at elevating HDL-C levels from 2 to 8 mg/dl, and lowering TG levels by 5 to 38 mg/dl. Exercise training seldom alters total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC). However, this range of weekly exercise energy expenditure is also associated with TC andLDL-C reductions when they are reported. The frequency and extent to which most of these lipid changes are reported are similar in both genders, with the exception of TG. Thus, for most individuals, the positive effects of regular exercise are exerted on blood lipids at low training volumes and accrue so that noticeable differences frequently occur with weekly energy expenditures of 1200 to 2200 kcal/wk. It appears that weekly exercise caloric expenditures that meet or exceed the higher end of this range are more likely to produce the desired lipid changes. This amount of physical activity, performed at moderate intensities, is reasonable and attainable for most individuals and is within the American College of Sports Medicine’s currently recommended range for healthy adults.Sports Medicine 01/2001; 31(15). DOI:10.2165/00007256-200131150-00002 · 5.04 Impact Factor