p62, a phosphotyrosine-independent ligand of the SH2 domain of p56lck, belongs to a new class of ubiquitin-binding proteins.
ABSTRACT p62 is a novel cellular protein which was initially identified as a phosphotyrosine-independent ligand of the SH2 domain of p56(lck). In the yeast two-hybrid system, p62 specifically interacted with ubiquitin in vivo. Furthermore, p62 bound to ubiquitin-conjugated Sepharose beads in vitro and was efficiently competed by soluble ubiquitin. The interaction was independent of ATP hydrolysis, and its dissociation did not require a reducing agent. Thus, p62 binds to ubiquitin noncovalently. Further analysis showed that the C-terminal 80 amino acids of p62 were indispensable for its interaction with ubiquitin. However, p62 has homology neither with ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases nor with the S5a subunit of the 26 S proteasome complex, the only proteins known to bind to ubiquitin noncovalently. These results suggest that p62 belongs to a new class of ubiquitin-binding proteins and that p62 affects signal transduction at least partly through ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation.
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ABSTRACT: Misfolded proteins are an emerging hallmark of cardiac diseases. Although some misfolded proteins, such as desmin, are associated with mutations in the genes encoding these disease-associated proteins, little is known regarding more general mechanisms that contribute to the generation of misfolded proteins in the heart. Reduced translational fidelity, caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the editing domain of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), resulted in accumulation of misfolded proteins in specific mouse neurons. By further genetic modulation of the editing activity of AlaRS, we generated mouse models with broader phenotypes, the severity of which was directly related to the degree of compromised editing. Severe disruption of the editing activity of AlaRS caused embryonic lethality, whereas an intermediate reduction in AlaRS editing efficacy resulted in ubiquitinated protein aggregates and mitochondrial defects in cardiomyocytes that were accompanied by progressive cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction. In addition, autophagic vacuoles accumulated in mutant cardiomyocytes, suggesting that autophagy is insufficient to eliminate misfolded proteins. These findings demonstrate that the pathological consequences of diminished tRNA synthetase editing activity, and thus translational infidelity, are dependent on the cell type and the extent of editing disruption, and provide a previously unidentified mechanism underlying cardiac proteinopathy.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2014; 111(49). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1420196111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
Article: Autophagy in DNA Damage Response[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA damage response (DDR) involves DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, but autophagy is also suggested to play a role in DDR. Autophagy can be activated in response to DNA-damaging agents, but the exact mechanism underlying this activation is not fully understood, although it is suggested that it involves the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 represses autophagy via phosphorylation of the ULK1/2-Atg13-FIP200 complex thus preventing maturation of pre-autophagosomal structures. When DNA damage occurs, it is recognized by some proteins or their complexes, such as poly(ADP)ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1), Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex or FOXO3, which activate repressors of mTORC1. SQSTM1/p62 is one of the proteins whose levels are regulated via autophagic degradation. Inhibition of autophagy by knockout of FIP200 results in upregulation of SQSTM1/p62, enhanced DNA damage and less efficient damage repair. Mitophagy, one form of autophagy involved in the selective degradation of mitochondria, may also play role in DDR. It degrades abnormal mitochondria and can either repress or activate apoptosis, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. There is a need to clarify the role of autophagy in DDR, as this process may possess several important biomedical applications, involving also cancer therapy.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 02/2015; 16(2):2641-2662. DOI:10.3390/ijms16022641 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Formation of intracellular inclusion bodies due to defects in the protein degradation machinery is associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Sequestosomal protein p62/A170/ZIP, which is an oxidative stress-related protein and a ubiquitin-binding protein, is a component protein of Lewy bodies that are observed in patients with Parkinson's disease. The association of p62 with poly-ubiquitinated proteins may be an important step in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates like Lewy bodies. To study the role of p62 in the formation of protein aggregates in PC12 cells, we monitored the intracellular localizations of p62 and ubiquitinated proteins and the levels of both components during treatment with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. In the early stage of aggregate formation, p62 did not always co-localize with ubiquitin. In contrast, these proteins were always co-localized in later stages. After the treatment of the cells with MG132, we found that the expression level of p62 increased due to the transcriptional activation of the gene and that higher molecular sizes of p62, corresponding to mono- and di-ubiquitinated formes, were also formed. Both the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D and an antisense oligonucleotide of p62 inhibited the MG132-mediated increase of p62, the sequestration of ubiquitinated proteins, and the enlargement of the aggregates. Furthermore, p62-positive aggregates were observed primarily in surviving cells. Together, these results suggest that p62 plays an important role in the protection of cells from the toxicity of misfolded proteins by enhancing aggregate formation especially in the later stages.Brain Research 06/2004; 1012(1-2):42-51. DOI:10.1016/S0006-8993(04)00474-3 · 2.83 Impact Factor