Postmodernism, health and illness

Retreat Hospital, York, England.
Journal of Advanced Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.74). 02/1996; 23(1):201-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.1996.tb03153.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This paper examines the value of drawing on ideas from poststructuralism and postmodernism in an attempt to understand the relationship between health, culture and society. Medical and professional discourses have come under increasing criticism for being uncaring, stigmatizing and disempowering. This paper supports a postmodernist approach which allows analysis of the fabrication of 'health', 'illness' and 'patient' subjectivity and the effect of the inscription on the body. It is suggested that health care professionals need to be more reflexive about their own knowledge claims and to resist the discursive practices which disempower and reduce choice.

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    • "Post-structural ideas, we argue, must be used consciously and reflexively, providing us with the conceptual tools that enable us to be much more aware of the complexity, context, history and power that is operating in any situation. Poststructuralist ideas can, therefore, be harnessed for the benefit of midwifery research without sacrificing our commitment to improving people's lives by generating knowledge (Mitchell 1996, Heslop 1997, Walker 1997, Francis 2000, Allen and Harding 2001, Stajduhar et al 2001, Fahy 2002). Denzin acknowledged the need to respond to these post-structural criticisms and insights. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim To present an adaptation of interpretive interactionism that incorporates and honours feminist values and principles. Background Interpretive interactionism as described by Denzin can be useful when examining interactive processes. It is especially useful when events affect turning points in people's lives. When issues of power and power imbalances are of interest, a critical post-structural lens may be of use to the researcher. The authors planned to examine the interactions between midwives and women at the 'epiphaneal' points of decision making during second-stage labour. It became clear that it was necessary to honour and thus incorporate feminist principles and values in their methodology. Data sources This paper draws on a recently completed PhD project to demonstrate the application of post-structural feminist interpretive interactionism. Twenty six midwives representing each state and territory across Australia who were representative of every model of midwifery care offered in Australia were interviewed to gauge their experiences of what they believed represented good and poor case examples of decision making during second-stage labour. Review methods The authors critique the philosophical underpinnings of interpretive interactionism, and then modify these to acknowledge and incorporate post-structural and feminist ideologies. Discussion Interpretive interactionism is a useful methodology when the research question is best addressed by examining interactional processes and the meanings people make of them, especially if these occur at turning points in people's lives. Interpretive interactionism methodology can and should be improved by taking account of issues of power, feminism and post-structural values. Conclusion Post-structural feminist interpretative interactionism has much to offer healthcare researchers who want to develop methodologically robust findings. Implications for practice/research Post-structural feminist interpretive interactionism enables the researcher to be more cognisant of the complex social political and historical context of midwifery. Researchers using feminist and post-structural ideologies will enhance research findings when these tools are applied consciously and reflexively.
    Nurse researcher 09/2013; 21(1):14-22. DOI:10.7748/nr2013.
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    • "This opportunity to recognize and renew connections to others, to values and to spiritual beliefs has been described as offering a renewed sense of connectivism (Arai and Pedlar, 2003; Carlisle et al., 2009). The eudaimonic interpretation of well‐being can be seen to reflect the post‐modernist perspective which values local narratives (Mitchell, 1996), prioritizes subjectivity and temporality (Weinblatt and Avrecht‐Bar, 2001) and rejects universality. Weinblatt and Avrecht‐Bar (2001) state that the term " subjective meaning " is in itself a post‐modern term and asserts the utility of a post‐modern perspective in enabling an occupational therapist to provide functional interventions which are practical for the client. "
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    ABSTRACT: Contemporary critique of the philosophy and theory of occupational therapy has asserted that the mainstream of the profession holds a westernized view of the world and that occupational therapy has been shackled to notions of health/illness and the medical establishment for too long, hampering movement into social and political spheres. Strategies and developments have been proposed to combat these biases, which have included increased cultural relativism and a re-focus on the subjective experience of occupation. The value placed on "being" in occupational therapy philosophy is described alongside the related terms of occupational integrity and spirituality. Drawing on theory and research from psychology, this paper proposes the construct of eudaimonic well-being as both relevant and valuable to occupational therapy in re-conceptualizing the profession, countering some of the central tensions in the identity of the profession and re-asserting that well-being through occupation is for all and for humanity. Finally, the paper proposes that well-being, in a eudaimonic sense, should be advertised and evidenced as a routine outcome of occupational therapy and consolidated into occupational therapy models as a relevant and meaningful concept. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Occupational Therapy International 03/2011; 18(3). DOI:10.1002/oti.316 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    • "Lyotard (1984) defines postmodernism as the decline of grand narrative authority. According to Mitchell (1996), local narratives are preferable to general, grand and glorious narratives. Only the various kinds of mini and local narratives should be related to at all. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents both the general concept of postmodernism and its reflection in a wide array of fields of interest. In particular, the paper reviews the postmodernist perspective as it appears in healthcare and medicine. This leads to a postmodernist analysis of the profession of occupational therapy, the main conclusion being that occupational therapy combines elements of modernism and postmodernism. This gives occupational therapy clinicians the luxury of enjoying the best of both worlds.
    Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy 07/2001; 68(3):164-70. DOI:10.1177/000841740106800305 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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