Overview of the most prevalent hypothalamus-specific mRNAs, as identified by directional tag PCR subtraction.

Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 09/1996; 93(16):8733-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.93.16.8733
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We applied the directional tag PCR subtractive hybridization method to construct a rat hypothalamic cDNA library from which cerebellar and hippocampal sequences had been depleted, enriching 20-30-fold for sequences expressed selectively in the hypothalamus. We studied a sample of 94 clones selected for enrichment in the subtracted library. These clones corresponded to 43 distinct mRNA species, about half of which were novel. Thirty-eight of these 43 mRNAs (corresponding to 85 of the clones in the sample) exhibited enrichment in the hypothalamus; 23 were highly enriched. In situ hybridization studies revealed that one novel species was restricted to cells in a small bilaterally symmetric area of the paraventricular hypothalamus. Other novel mRNAs showed substantial enrichment in basal diencephalic structures, particularly the hypothalamus, without restriction to single hypothalamic nuclei. The data suggest that the hypothalamus utilizes at least two distinct strategies for employing its selectively expressed proteins. Secretory neuropeptides utilized for intercellular communication are produced by functionally discrete nuclei, while several other proteins are shared by structures that are unrelated in their physiological roles but may share biochemical systems.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 10/2014; 8:313. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00313
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The neuropeptides orexin-A and orexin-B are produced by one group of neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic/perifornical area. However, the orexins are widely released in entire brain including various central motor control structures. Especially, the loss of orexins has been demonstrated to associate with several motor deficits. Here, we first summarize the present knowledge that describes the anatomical and morphological connections between the orexin system and various central motor control structures. In the next section, the direct influence of orexins on related central motor control structures is reviewed at molecular, cellular, circuitry, and motor activity levels. After the summarization, the characteristic and functional relevance of the orexin system's direct influence on central motor control function are demonstrated and discussed. We also propose a hypothesis as to how the orexin system orchestrates central motor control in a homeostatic regulation manner. Besides, the importance of the orexin system's phasic modulation on related central motor control structures is highlighted in this regulation manner. Finally, a scheme combining the homeostatic regulation of orexin system on central motor control and its effects on other brain functions is presented to discuss the role of orexin system beyond the pure motor activity level, but at the complex behavioral level. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 12/2014; 49. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.12.005 · 10.28 Impact Factor
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 19, 2014