Transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the yolk and nestling was investigated in the budgerigar. Specific antibodies to avian polyomavirus and Newcastle disease virus could be detected in 82% of yolk extracts of eggs from seropositive hens. Using a double immunodiffusion assay with anti-chicken IgG antibodies, IgG could also be detected in yolk supernatants with virus neutralizing activity. In all assays, IgG concentrations in the yolk extracts were significantly less than those of the adult budgerigar serum. No antiviral activity was detected in nestling serum. Examination of nestling serum with the double immunodiffusion assay and an immuno-dot-blot technique specific for IgG showed that detectable concentrations of IgG are not present in nestling serum until after the yolk sac is fully absorbed. This observation, coupled with the absence of specific anti-viral antibody in nestlings of seropositive hens, indicated that none of the yolk sac antibody reached the nestling circulation.
"The half-life of IgY in hatching chickens and in Blue and Gold Macaws is about 4 days, and maternal IgY is virtually undetectable by 4 weeks of age. Maternal immunoglobulin Y has been demonstrated to be effective in protecting the chicken against a variety of different bacterial, viral, and parasitic challenges during the first week or two post-hatch (Shawky et al., 1993; Shawky et al., 1994; Smith et al., 1994; Sugita-konishi et al., 1996; Ling et al., 1998), but its protective capacity is in question in Psittaciformes (Ritchie et al., 1992; Phalen et al., 1995). These antibodies give the newly hatched chick's immunity a start, while their own system is developing, thereby protects them from infection. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assessment of maternal immunity of poultry birds transferred to young chicks was carried out using both local breed and broiler chickens, with an objective to determine the antibody level pattern and hematological parameters of chickens in the first thirty one (31) days of life. One hundred and twenty birds were used for the study. Ninety (90) broilers and thirty (30) local breed chickens were grouped into four of 30 birds per group. Group 1 was local breed chickens only (LC), group 2 was vaccinated with “Primer” - Newcastle disease virus (SIM), group 3 was vaccinated with Primer and booster (Lasota) dose of Newcastle disease virus (DIM) and group 4 was non vaccinated broilers (NIM). Chickens were fed with standard feeds and adequate water ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected from the groups at every 72 hour interval using standard methods. The leukocyte count was higher among the groups, packed cell volume was unstable, but increased gradually with age, heterophil / lymphocyte (H/L) ratio was decreasing with age among groups. Unlike NIM and SIM, Immunoglobulin Y was raised following vaccination on day 21 in DIM group; it was gradually increased in LC with age. Immunoglobulin M was not significant between the groups. The maternal antibody in LC and DIM were statistically significant but there was no significant difference in hematological
parameters of the birds used in this study irrespective of the species. NDV vaccination had no effect on packed cell volume and hemogram. H/L ratio and antibody level decreased with age, given that the birds were not immunologically challenged.
Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences 01/2014; 3(2):47-56.
"In Hasselquist et al. (1999) and Ilmonen et al. (2000, 2002), the set-up was an indirect ELISA based on coating with the antigen, adding the test plasma where antigen-specific antibodies bind to the antigen, then adding a rabbit anti- Redwinged Blackbird IgG antibody that binds to the passerine antibodies in the plasma, and finally adding an anti-rabbit IgG conjugated antibody to induce a colour reaction that estimates the amount of antigenspecific passerine antibodies that have bound to the antigen. Only in one case was the specificity of the secondary antibody validated by Western blot (Phalen et al. 1995). However, to our knowledge no other study has validated ELISA data with other immunological or electrophoretic techniques, thus fulfilling step (i). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary 1. This study presents an easy protocol to measure the amount of immunoglobulins from the blood serum of different bird species in the wild ( Ficedula hypoleuca Pallas, Parus caeruleus L., Lanius meridionalis Temminkck, Lanius collurio L., Athene noctua Scopoli and Falco tinnunculus L.) by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA using commercial antichicken antibodies. 2. Additionally, the ELISA technique is validated for detecting serum immunoglobulins by means of other electrophoretic (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and native electrophoresis) and immunological (Western blot) methods. 3. The results by Western blot show that the commercial antibody recognized proteins with apparent molecular weight according to heavy and light chains of immunoglobulins. 4. Both ELISA and Western blot data were correlated, implying that the commercial antibody bound to immunoglobulins and not to other proteins or ELISA plates. Densitometric data achieved by SDS-PAGE and native electrophoresis were only correlated in some species indicating a problem in detecting clearly the heavy and light chains, and γ -globulin fraction, respectively. 5. It is concluded that the proposed protocol is easy to carry out and may be used to detect total serum immunoglobulins from most bird species.
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