The role of metals in ischemia/reperfusion injury of the liver.
ABSTRACT Based on current information, we have described the role that metals play in potentiating and ameliorating liver I/R injury. To date, most of the data have focused on the deleterious effects of free iron in mediating I/R injury. Several therapeutic strategies have proven useful in animal models to counteract the effect of iron as a potentiator of I/R injury. These approaches have predominantly centered on the role of iron chelation using DFO and DFO conjugates. The data suggest that chelation of iron may prove useful in preventing I/R injury such as occurs in liver transplantation. Indeed, enough data are now available to initiate and support clinical trials (e.g., addition of DFO conjugates to explant storage solutions). The role of copper, however, is less well defined. Copper is important for the function of copper-zinc SOD. However, free copper may be as injurious as free iron. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of copper in I/R-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Selenium has a well-defined antioxidant role as part of GSH peroxidase (GSH antioxidant pathway). More recent data suggest that selenium may also act as an antioxidant through selenoprotein P, but the role of selenoprotein P in I/R injury remains to be defined. Finally, zinc appears to function as an antioxidant in less well-defined pathways. Further studies are needed to identify the fundamental mechanisms by which zinc may ameliorate oxidative damage during I/R injury. These data demonstrate that metals play a critical role in I/R injury of the liver and remain a fruitful area for investigation and development of therapeutic strategies.
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ABSTRACT: Liver resections are frequently associated with significant ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury of the liver remnant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether deferoxamine (DFO) can ameliorate I-R injury during major hepatectomies performed under vascular exclusion of the liver in a porcine model. Twelve female domestic pigs were divided into control (n = 6) and DFO treatment (n = 6) groups and subjected to 150 min. liver ischemia followed by 70% hepatectomy and 24 hours reperfusion. Pigs in the DFO group received a continuous intravenous infusion of 100 mg/kg DFO. Liver remnant injury was evaluated by liver function tests, hepatic histology as well as serum and liver tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Deferoxamine-treated animals had reduced total bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase and ammonia levels as well as hepatocyte necrosis and oxidative injury. In a subsequent randomized clinical trial using DFO for I-R protection during major liver surgery, preliminary results revealed amelioration of hepatocellular damage, oxidative and inflammatory serum markers and apoptotic response in liver remnant biopsies.Hemoglobin 06/2010; 34(3):265-77. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since its discovery, the unique properties of the naturally occurring amino acid, L-ergothioneine (EGT; 2-mercaptohistidine trimethylbetaine), have intrigued researchers for more than a century. This widely distributed thione is only known to be synthesized by non-yeast fungi, mycobacteria and cyanobacteria but accumulates in higher organisms at up to millimolar levels via an organic cation transporter (OCTN1). The physiological role of EGT has yet to be established. Numerous in vitro assays have demonstrated the antioxidant and cytoprotective capabilities of EGT against a wide range of cellular stressors, but an antioxidant role has yet to be fully verified in vivo. Nevertheless the accumulation, tissue distribution and scavenging properties, all highlight the potential for EGT to function as a physiological antioxidant. This article reviews our current state of knowledge. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2011; 1822(5):784-93. · 4.66 Impact Factor
- AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 02/2009; 296(1):H233-4; author reply H235. · 4.01 Impact Factor