Mg(2+)-dependent and Ca2+, Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activities in the harderian gland of rodents: age and sex influences.
ABSTRACT Three experiments employing male and female Syrian hamsters (aged 1, 2, and 8-10 months), male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 1, 2, and 10 months) and male C57B1 mice (aged 2, 7, 13, and 29 months) examined the effects of age and sex on Mg(2+)-dependent and Ca2+, Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity in the Harderian gland. Significant differences due to age and sex were observed in the hamsters and rats but not with age in mice. Generally, male hamsters had significantly higher Mg(2+)-dependent and Ca2+, Mg(2+)-dependent (exception at one timepoint) ATPase activity than did females. Age-matched male and female rats had similar values of Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity, but males had significantly higher Ca2+, Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity than females at 2 months of age.
Article: Calcium pump of the plasma membrane.Physiological Reviews 02/1991; 71(1):129-53. · 30.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Long-term increased or decreased circulating levels of thyroid hormones significantly modify porphyrin concentrations and morphology in the Harderian glands of male and female hamsters. Administration of T3 reduced porphyrin concentrations in females; this treatment or decreasing thyroid hormone levels with KClO4 suppressed the post-castration rise of porphyrins in males. Hypophysectomy led to increased porphyrins in the Harderian glands of males; this rise was suppressed in hypophysectomized males by T3 or T4. In females, hypophysectomy reduced porphyrins which were further reduced by daily administration of T3 or T4. These modifications in the normal females were identical in castrated males. Mitotic activity in the Harderian glands of females was stimulated by KClO4 and by hypophysectomy with or without exogenous T3. In males, castration increased mitotic activity which was suppressed by T3 and exacerbated by KClO4. Increased mitotic activity seemingly follows loss of tissue mass. The data show that thyroid hormones act directly on the Harderian glands rather than indirectly through modification of TSH synthesis/release. Female "type" glands in males are a consequence of loss of gonadal androgens by castration, or by suppression or loss of thyroid hormones by hypophysectomy or by treatment with KClO4. However, male "type" glands in females are the result of androgen treatment, and/or increased levels of thyroid hormones via reduced ambient temperatures or of photic input. We conclude that regulation of the Harderian gland appears to be different in the two sexes.Journal of Comparative Physiology B 02/1990; 160(3):269-75. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well known that in different tissues, dihydropyridines bind at nanomolar concentrations to a receptor and block voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. In studies reported here, Harderian gland tissue homogenates from intact male hamsters exhibited significant dihydropyridine binding (Bmax = 1700 fmoles/mg protein) of high affinity (Kd = 1.1 nM). Tissue homogenates from female animals exhibited a similar Kd value (1.35 nM) but receptor density per mg protein was significantly reduced (Bmax = 270 fmoles). Dihydropyridine binding of Harderian gland tissue homogenates from castrated males was reduced greater than 80% (Bmax = 225 fmoles/mg protein). Treatment of castrated males with subcutaneous testosterone pellets resulted in significant restoration of dihydropyridine binding activity (approximately 80%, Bmax = 1630 fmoles/mg protein) with a comparable binding constant (Kd = 1.50 nM) as observed for noncastrated, control animals. Addition of testosterone (ex vivo) to homogenates from castrated hamsters did not restore dihydropyridine binding to control levels. These data indicate: (a) the Harderian gland from male hamsters exhibits significant dihydropyridine binding; (b) ligand binding is abolished following castration; and (c) significant restoration of dihydropyridine binding occurs following in vivo testosterone treatment. The dependence of dihydropyridine binding restoration upon in vivo steroid hormone administration suggests probable involvement of the steroid at the transcriptional level although non-genomic mechanisms such as the binding of testosterone to a receptor resident in the plasma membrane and subsequent activation of Ca2+ channels can not be ruled out.Cell Calcium 11/1992; 13(9):565-70. · 4.33 Impact Factor