Electron microscopic serial-sectioning/reconstruction study of parvalbumin-containing neurons in the external plexiform layer of the rat olfactory bulb.
ABSTRACT Neurons containing a calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in the external plexiform layer of the rat olfactory bulb were identified light microscopically with the pre-embedding immunocytochemistry and were subsequently analysed with the electron microscopic serial-sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. In the present study we chose several different types of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons identified light microscopically as Van Gehuchten cell type, superficial short-axon cell type and multipolar cell type. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive somata were similar to one another in their ultrastructural characteristics, showing nuclear indentations, moderately developed Golgi apparatus and abundant mitochondria; these structural features appeared to resemble those of the short axon cells around the glomeruli and in the granule cell layer reported in previous electron microscopic studies. All neurons analysed in the present study made symmetrical synapses on to dendrites and somata of presumed mitral/tufted cells and received asymmetrical synapses from them, and occasionally formed reciprocal synapses with them. On the parvalbumin-immunoreactive processes, the asymmetrical synapses nearly equalled the symmetrical ones in number and about 30-50% of them were identified as reciprocal pairs. In contrast, no presynaptic sites were observed on parvalbumin-immunoreactive somata, and thick portions (more than approximately 2 microns in diameter) of the proximal dendrites, where they were occasionally postsynaptic in some asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses from parvalbumin-immunonegative profiles. Characteristically, parvalbumin-immunoreactive process frequently make direct contacts with one another; processes regarded light microscopically as arising from a soma or a dendrite or parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were sometimes revealed to be separate but directly contacting processes with electron microscopic examinations. Although puncta adherentia were occasionally observed between these contact sites, so far neither gap junctions nor chemical synapses were observed. Until now, it has been believed that in the external plexiform layer only granule cells form reciprocal synapses with mitral/tufted cells. However, the present study clearly demonstrates that interneurons different from granule cells, namely GABAergic neurons containing a calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, also make reciprocal synapses with mitral/tufted cells in the external plexiform layer. Therefore, neuronal processes making reciprocal synapses with mitral/tufted cells in the external plexiform layer cannot be determined a priori as granule cell processes.
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ABSTRACT: Ca2+ ions, involved in the control of many important physiological functions, require the presence of specific intracellular Ca2+-binding proteins to exert their regulatory roles. Many of the latter have been extracted and purified. Thus, troponin-C regulates muscle contraction1 and calmodulin is involved in a variety of fundamental cellular activities2,3. Parvalbumin seems to be restricted to muscle and brain4-6 but its physiological role is not yet clear. In muscle it probably participates in a regulatory system operating mainly in fast contracting muscles7,8, but in brain, even its anatomical distribution is unknown. We now describe the localization by immunohistological means of parvalbumin in neurones scattered throughout the central nervous system of the rat. Although the distributions of parvalbumin- and GABAergic neurones are similar, the physiological function of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurones is not yet recognizable.Nature 10/1981; 293(5830):300-2. · 38.60 Impact Factor
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology 08/1982; 208(4):419-30. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The distribution of the calcium binding protein calretinin (protein 10) was examined in the rat forebrain by immunohistochemistry. The main and accessory olfactory bulbs had immunoreactive label in granule, periglomerular, and mitral cells. Positive fibers were noted in the external plexiform and granule cell layers, glomeruli, and in the molecular layer of the anterior olfactory nucleus. The cerebral cortex contained calretinin label in nonpyramidal bipolar cells. Cells in the substantia nigra compacta and ventral tegmental area were also calretinin positive as were nigrostriatal and mesolimbic projections (caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens). In the hippocampus, interneurons were stained in all the subfields of the CA1-CA4 regions. In the thalamus, many positive cells were observed in the periventricular, reticular, lateral habenula, and reunions nuclei. Calretinin immunoreactive cells were particularly abundant in the lateral mamillary and septofimbrial nuclei. Several fiber tracts were also revealed, i.e., the lateral olfactory tract, mamillothalamic tract, fasciculus retroflexus, optic tract, and stria medullaris. These results demonstrate a distinct distribution of calretinin within cell bodies and fibers.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 03/1991; 304(2):198-218. · 3.66 Impact Factor