Human plasma DSIP decreases at the initiation of sleep at different circadian times.
ABSTRACT Nocturnal plasma delta sleep-inducing peptide-like immunoreactivity (DSIP-LI) was determined serially in seven healthy male subjects. Time courses during nocturnal sleep (2300-0800 h), nocturnal sleep deprivation (2300-0500 h), and morning recovery sleep (0500-0800 h) after sleep deprivation were compared. A significant decrease in plasma DSIP-LI was found at the transition from wakefulness to sleep in both evening sleep (2300 h) and morning recovery sleep (0500 h). Time courses were accompanied by physiological changes in sleep electroencephalographic slow-wave activity, and in plasma concentrations of cortisol and human growth hormone. No sleep stage specificity was found. It is concluded that DSIP is influenced by the initiation of sleep.
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ABSTRACT: Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) was isolated from rabbit cerebral venous blood by Schoenenberger-Monnier group from Basel in 1977 and initially regarded as a candidate sleep-promoting factor. However, the link between DSIP and sleep has never been further characterized, in part because of the lack of isolation of the DSIP gene, protein and possible related receptor. Thus the hypothesis regarding DSIP as a sleep factor is extremely poorly documented and still weak. Although DSIP itself presented a focus of study for a number of researchers, its natural occurrence and biological activity still remains obscure. DSIP structure is different from any other known representative of the various peptide families. In this mini-review we hypothesize the existence of a DSIP-like peptide(s) that is responsible (at least partly) for DSIP-like immunoreactivity and DSIP biological activity. This assumption is based on: (i) a highly specific distribution of DSIP-like immunoreactivity in the neurosecretory hypothalamic nuclei of various vertebrate species that are not particularly relevant for sleep regulation, as revealed by the histochemical studies of the Geneva group (Charnay et al.); (ii) a large spectrum of DSIP biological activity revealed by biochemical and physiological studies in vitro; (iii) significant slow-wave sleep (SWS) promoting activity of certain artificial DSIP structural analogues (but not DSIP itself!) in rabbits and rats revealed by our early studies; and (iv) significant SWS-promoting activity of a naturally occurring dermorphin-decapeptide that is structurally similar to DSIP (in five of the nine positions) and the sleep-suppressing effect of its optical isomer, as revealed in rabbits. Potential future studies are outlined, including natural synthesis and release of this DSIP-like peptide and its role in neuroendocrine regulation.Journal of Neurochemistry 05/2006; 97(2):303-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03693.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A selective and sensitive fluorometric determination method for native fluorescent peptides has been developed. This method is based on intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) detection in a liquid chromatography (LC) system following precolumn derivatization of the amino groups of tryptophan (Trp)-containing peptides. In this detection process, we monitored the FRET from the native fluorescent Trp moieties (donor) to the derivatized fluorophore (acceptor). From a screening study involving 10 fluorescent reagents, we found that o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) generated FRET most effectively. The OPA derivatives of the native fluorescent peptides emitted OPA fluorescence (445 nm) through an intramolecular FRET process when they were excited at the excitation maximum wavelength of the Trp-containing peptides (280 nm). The generation of FRET was confirmed through comparison with the analysis of a non-fluorescent peptide (C-reactive protein fragment (77 - 82)) performed using LC and a three-dimensional fluorescence detection system. We were able to separate the OPA derivatives of the Trp-containing peptides when performing LC on a reversed-phase column. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) for the Trp-containing peptides, at a 20-microL injection volume, were 41 - 180 fmol. The sensitivity of the intramolecular FRET-forming derivatization method is higher than that of the system that takes advantage of the conventional detection of OPA derivatives. Moreover, native non-fluorescent amines and peptides in the sample monitored at FRET detection are weaker than those of conventional fluorescence detection.Analytical Sciences 09/2007; 23(8):949-53. DOI:10.2116/analsci.23.949 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We spend almost one-third of our life sleeping, yet very little is understood as to why we need sleep or how do we sleep. The extrinsic and intrinsic controlling mechanisms of sleep have fascinated scientists for generations and many different theories, networks and endogenous compounds have been proposed. Although various substances are labeled 'sleep-inducing substances' for example, delta sleep inducing peptide, prostaglandin etc. we still lack definitive knowledge on how these chemicals bring about a balance in regulating sleep and wakefulness. However, as the biochemical mechanisms underlying sleep control are now slowly emerging, the major question perhaps is whether these humoral mediators seem to have some relation to sleep by, for example, affecting circadian rhythms or arousal states thereby actively governing the sleep pattern or are they just responding to the sleep homeostasis12/2004: pages 201-219;