Repetition priming for newly formed and preexisting associations: perceptual and conceptual influences.
ABSTRACT Three experiments demonstrate that association-specific repetition effects can be obtained for both newly formed and preexisting associations and that these effects are sensitive to modality of presentation. After studying a list of word pairs, participants were shown the original intact pairs and pairs formed by recombining the original pairs. In a lexical-decision task in which participants were asked to indicate whether both items were words, responses were faster to newly formed associations in the intact than in the recombined condition. This association-specific repetition priming effect was also observed for preexisting associations when a speeded relatedness judgment task was used. Both effects were found to be attenuated under cross-modal presentation. Finally, an explicit speeded recognition task revealed an associative effect that was not attenuated when modality was crossed for newly formed associations and was actually exaggerated for preexisting associations, suggesting that the repetition priming effects were not produced by conscious recollection. Results are discussed in terms of frameworks that are based either on perceptual representation systems or on a transfer-appropriate processing model.
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ABSTRACT: There are two general classes of models of semantic structure that support semantic priming effects. Feature-overlap models of semantic priming assume that shared features between primes and targets are critical (e.g., cat-DOG). Associative accounts assume that contextual co-occurrence is critical and that the system is organized along associations independent of featural overlap (e.g., leash-DOG). If unrelated concepts can become related as a result of contextual co-occurrence, this would be more supportive of associative accounts and provide insight into the nature of the network underlying "semantic" priming effects. Naturally co-occurring recent associations (e.g., face-BOOK) were tested under conditions that minimize strategic influences (i.e., short stimulus onset asynchrony and low relatedness proportion) in a semantic priming paradigm. Priming for new associations did not differ from the priming found for pre-existing relations (e.g., library-BOOK). Mediated priming (e.g., nose-BOOK) was also found. These results suggest that contextual associations can result in the reorganization of the network that subserves "semantic" priming effects.Experimental Psychology 01/2011; 58(1):62-70. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Critically evaluates the dual-process theories of memory in old age. A summary of findings from a diversity of sources is presented and 3 paradigms that have been used to dissociate recollection and familiarity in young and older adults are considered. These paradigms are (1) direct vs indirect measures of memory, (2) the process dissociation procedure developed by L. L. Jacoby (1991), and (3) the remember/know technique developed by E. Tulving (1985) and J. M. Gardiner (1988). The goal of the chapter is to place findings with respect to aging in the context of current theoretical debates about the nature of memory constructs and appropriate models for indices of these constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)10/2012;
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ABSTRACT: In a lexical decision task, faster reaction times (RTs) for old than new items is taken as evidence for an implicit memory involvement in this task. In contrast, the present study shows the involvement of both implicit and explicit memory in repetition priming. We propose a dual route model, in which lexical decisions can be made using one of two parallel processing routes: a lexical route, in which the lexical properties of the stimulus are used to determine whether it is a word or not, and a strategic route that builds on the inherent correlation between "wordness" and "oldness" in the experiment. Eliminating the strategic route by removing this correlation diminishes the priming effect at the slow end of the RT distribution, but not at the fast end. This dissociation is interpreted as evidence for the involvement of both implicit and explicit memory in repetition priming.Memory 11/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor